Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastric Antrum (Distal Stomach)

Reference work entry


Antropyloric region; Distal stomach; Pyloric antrum


Anatomically, the stomach is divided from proximal to distal into the following regions: cardia, fundus, corpus or body and the antropyloric region; the latter is in this entry designated as antrum. The extent of the gastric regions varies between individuals, and in individuals, with age and with disease progress. The triangularly shaped antrum is demarcated from the corpus by a notch in the lesser curvature, the incisura angularis. A greatly thickened distal muscular wall forms the pyloric sphincter. A narrow lumen passes through the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum. Possibly due to chronic gastritis, many older adults have a reduction in the area of fundic mucosa, with expansion of the zone of pyloric mucosa. This results in proximal displacement of the pylorofundic junction, a change termed pyloric or pseudopyloric metaplasia.


The stomach functions as reservoir, harbors a mucosal barrier function,...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmerman, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008). Gastrointestinal pathology: An atlas and text (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  2. Keet, A. D. (1982). The anatomical extent of the pyloric sphincteric cylinder, the pyloric mucosal zone and the pyloric antrum. South African Medical Journal, 62(10), 329–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Owen, D. A. (1986). Normal histology of the stomach. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 10(1), 48–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Schubert, M. L. (2009). Gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 25(6), 529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Stave, R., Brandtzaeg, P., Nygaard, K., & Fausa, O. (1978). The transitional body-antrum zone in resected human stomachs. Anatomical outline and parietal-cell and gastrin-cell characteristics in peptic ulcer disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 13(6), 685–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands