Gastric Antrum (Distal Stomach)
Antropyloric region; Distal stomach; Pyloric antrum
Anatomically, the stomach is divided from proximal to distal into the following regions: cardia, fundus, corpus or body and the antropyloric region; the latter is in this entry designated as antrum. The extent of the gastric regions varies between individuals, and in individuals, with age and with disease progress. The triangularly shaped antrum is demarcated from the corpus by a notch in the lesser curvature, the incisura angularis. A greatly thickened distal muscular wall forms the pyloric sphincter. A narrow lumen passes through the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum. Possibly due to chronic gastritis, many older adults have a reduction in the area of fundic mucosa, with expansion of the zone of pyloric mucosa. This results in proximal displacement of the pylorofundic junction, a change termed pyloric or pseudopyloric metaplasia.
The stomach functions as reservoir, harbors a mucosal barrier function,...
References and Further Reading
- Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmerman, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008). Gastrointestinal pathology: An atlas and text (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Stave, R., Brandtzaeg, P., Nygaard, K., & Fausa, O. (1978). The transitional body-antrum zone in resected human stomachs. Anatomical outline and parietal-cell and gastrin-cell characteristics in peptic ulcer disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 13(6), 685–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar