Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Pyloric Stenosis

  • Filipe Vilas-BoasEmail author
  • Francisco Baldaque-Silva
  • Fátima Carneiro
  • Guilherme Macedo
Reference work entry


Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Idiopathic pyloric stenosis; Juvenile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Primary pyloric stenosis


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a form of gastric outlet obstruction, usually presenting with projectile nonbilious vomiting in infants in the first 3–12 weeks of life. It is caused by an acquired stenosis of the pylorus, not present at birth, but developing in the first weeks of life.

On the contrary, adult pyloric obstruction is usually secondary to local diseases such as peptic ulcers or carcinomas near the pylorus, lymphomas, Crohn’s disease, or adjacent carcinoma of the pancreas. There are few reports of primary adult forms with unknown etiology, which are probably missed infantile cases that had a milder course. In these cases, the treatment of choice has been distal gastrectomy and the diagnosis usually relies on the pathological examination of surgical specimens showing total or segmental hypertrophy of the...

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References and Further Reading

  1. MacMahon, B. (2006). The continuing enigma of pyloric stenosis of infancy: A review. Epidemiology, 17(2), 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Panteli, C. (2009). New insights into the pathogenesis of infantile pyloric stenosis. Pediatric Surgery International, 25, 1043–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ranells, J. D., Carver, J. D., & Kirby, R. S. (2011). Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: epidemiology, genetics, and clinical update. Advances in Pediatrics, 58(1), 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Semrin, M. G., & Russo, M. A. (2010). Anatomy, histology, embryology, and developmental anomalies of the stomach and duodenum. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.), Sleisenger & Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, management (pp. 773–785). Philadelphia: Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Okazaki, T., et al. (1994). Abnormal distribution of nerve terminals in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 29, 655–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guarino, N., Shima, H., Oue, T., & Puri, P. (2000) Glial-derived growth factor signaling pathway in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 35(6), 835–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gentile, C., Romeo, C., Impellizzeri, P., Turiaco, N., Esposito, M., Di Mauro, D., & Mondello, M. R. (1998). A possible role of the plasmalemmal cytoskeleton, nitric oxide synthase, and innervation in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. A confocal laser scanning microscopic study. Pediatric Surgery International, 14(1–2), 45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filipe Vilas-Boas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco Baldaque-Silva
    • 1
  • Fátima Carneiro
    • 2
  • Guilherme Macedo
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro Hospitalar de São JoãoAlameda Professor Hernani MonteiroPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine of Porto UniversityCentro Hospitalar São João and Ipatimup/i3SPortoPortugal