Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Pyloric Gland Adenoma

  • Helena BaldaiaEmail author
Reference work entry


Gastric-type adenoma


Pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) are localized epithelial neoplastic growths with pyloric differentiation (Park et al. 2012). They were first described in 1976 by Elster but misinterpreted as adenoma-like hyperplasia of mucous glands. In 1990, Borchard et al. published the first characterization of two cases with mucin analysis. Although 85% are found in the stomach, 15% are found in extra-gastric locations (Vieth et al. 2003). Like intestinal-type adenomas, pyloric gland adenomas can arise in a background of autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection (Lash et al. 2011). Even if rare, PGAs are precancerous lesions and frequently associated with high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (Kushima et al. 2006; Vieth et al. 2003).

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    In one study, in a period of 10 years, pyloric gland adenomas corresponded to 2.7% of all gastric polyps (Vieth et al. 2003).

  • Age

    The peak age at diagnosis is in the seventh decade (73 ±...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Chen, Z. M., Scudiere, J. R., Abraham, S. C., & Montgomery, E. (2009). Pyloric gland adenoma: An entity distinct from gastric foveolar type adenoma. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 33(2), 186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kushima, R., Vieth, M., Borchard, F., et al. (2006). Gastric-type well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and pyloric gland adenoma of the stomach. Gastric Cancer, 9(3), 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lash, R. H., Kinsey, S., Genta, R. M., & Lauwers, G. Y. (2011). Gastric polyps. In D. Tan & G. Y. Lauwers (Eds.), Advances in surgical pathology gastric cancer (pp. 308–309). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  4. Park, J. Y., Fenton, H., Lewin, M., & Dilworth, H. (2012). Epithelial neoplasms of the stomach. In C. A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, E. Montgomary, & J. R. Golblum (Eds.), Gastrointestinal and liver pathology (pp. 148–150). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  5. Vieth, M., Kushima, R., Borchard, F., & Stolte, M. (2003). Pyloric gland adenoma: A clinico-pathological analysis of 90 cases. Virchows Archiv, 442(4), 317–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Vieth, M., Kushima, R., Mukaisho, K., Sakai, R., et al. (2010). Immunohistochemical analysis of pyloric gland adenomas using a series of Mucin 2, Mucin 5AC, Mucin 6, CD10, Ki67 and p53. Virchows Archiv, 457(5), 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Anatomia PatológicaCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal