Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Peptic Ulcer

  • Pedro Pimentel-NunesEmail author
  • Ricardo Marcos-Pinto
  • Mário Dinis-Ribeiro
Reference work entry


Duodenal ulcer; Gastric ulcer; Gastroduodenal ulcers; Peptic erosions; Peptic ulcer disease


Peptic ulcers are the most common form of gastroduodenal ulcerations caused by the combined effect of acid and gastric pepsin. They are clinically defined as a mucosal break equal to or greater than 5 mm that extend through the muscularis mucosa, in the stomach or duodenum, organs that are normally exposed to acidic environment. As many as 70–80% of the cases of peptic ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylorigastric infection, and 20–30% associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with 10% being idiopathic. Peptic ulcers are most commonly caused by a decrease in mucosal defense mechanisms that can be related to Helicobacter infection and/or NSAIDs use, allowing the action of acid and pepsin on an unprotected gastroduodenal mucosa. Uncommonly, they are associated with hypersecretory states like gastrinomas (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)....

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Cryer, B., & Spechler, S. J. (2010). Peptic ulcer disease. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.) Sleisenger & Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Malfertheiner, P., Megraud, F., O’Morain, C., et al. (2012). Management of Helicobacter pylori infection – The Maastricht IV/Florence Consensus Report. Gut, 61, 646–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Tytgat, G. N. (2011). Etiopathogenetic principles and peptic ulcer disease classification. Digestive Diseases, 29(5), 454–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Pimentel-Nunes
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ricardo Marcos-Pinto
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mário Dinis-Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Serviço de GastrenterologiaPortuguese Oncology InstitutePortoPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Português de Oncologia (IPO - Porto)Cintesis (FMUP-UP)PortoPortugal
  3. 3.Centro Hospitalar do PortoInstituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS-UP), Cintesis (FMUP-UP)PortoPortugal