Mallory Weiss Lacerations, Esophageal
Gastroesophageal lacerations; Mallory-Weiss tears
Mallory-Weiss lacerations are mucosal or submucosal longitudinal tears that occur at the gastroesophageal junction or gastric cardia. These lacerations may cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding from submucosal blood vessels (Mallory-Weiss syndrome). They were first described in 15 alcoholic patients with persistent retching and vomiting (Mallory and Weiss 1929).
While the pathogenesis is not completely understood, it appears that any action leading to a sudden rise in intra-abdominal pressure and gastric prolapse or intussusception into the esophagus may cause a Mallory-Weiss laceration. Besides retching and vomiting, other precipitating factors include coughing, straining, convulsions, hiccups, blunt abdominal trauma, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Iatrogenic tears can result from procedures like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and transesophageal echocardiography. Colonoscopic preparation with polyethylene...
References and Further Reading
- Bharucha, A. E., Gstout, C. J., & Balm, R. K. (1994). Clinical and endoscopic risk factors in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 89, 2147.Google Scholar
- Kovacs, T. O., & Jensen, D. M. (1997). Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of bleeding Mallory-Weiss tears. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 92, 805.Google Scholar