Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Helicobacter pylori Infection

  • Ceu FigueiredoEmail author
Reference work entry


Campylobacter pylori; Campylobacter pyloridis


Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic bacteria that colonize the human stomach. Although the presence of bacteria in the human stomach has been known for more than a century, only about 30 years ago, H. pylori was successfully isolated and cultured from a gastric biopsy specimen. This discovery, together with studies on the implication of H. pylori as an etiologic agent in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, resulted in the awarding of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Barry Marshall and Robin Warren.

Before acquisition of its current name, the microorganisms were first named “Campylobacter pyloridis,” then “Campylobacter pylori,” and finally assigned to the genus Helicobacter. Since the discovery of H. pylori, many new species that infect human or animal hosts have been described, and the Helicobacter genus now includes at least 33 formally named species.

H. pyloriis a...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Atherton, J. C. (2006). The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases. Annual Review of Pathology, 1, 63–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (2009). A review of human carcinogens: Biological agents (Vol. 100 – Part B). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  3. Kusters, J. G., van Vliet, A. H., & Kuipers, E. J. (2006). Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19, 449–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Malfertheiner, P., Megraud, F., O'Morain, C. A., Atherton, J., Axon, A. T., Bazzoli, F., Gensini, G. F., Gisbert, J. P., Graham, D. Y., Rokkas, T., El-Omar, E. M., Kuipers, E. J., & European Helicobacter Study Group. (2012). Management of Helicobacter pylori infection – The maastricht IV/ florence consensus report. Gut, 61, 646–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mégraud, F., & Lehours, P. (2007). Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 20, 280–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of PortoInstitute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP)PortoPortugal