Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia (GAVE)

Reference work entry


Watermelon stomach


GAVE was firstly described in 1984, in a report of three cases, as referring to a condition with a characteristic endoscopic antral appearance in which the longitudinal antral folds had visible reddened vessels radiating from the pylorus and therefore resembling the stripes on a watermelon (Jabbari et al. 1984). Usual presentation ranges from occult bleeding (with possible transfusion-dependent anemia) to severe acute GI bleeding. Although etiology remains largely unknown, most patients with GAVE have chronic medical conditions with up to 30% of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. In case of non-cirrhotic patients, autoimmune diseases have consistently been reported (Selinger and Ang 2008), being autoimmune connective tissue disorders, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and sclerodactyly the most common.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    GAVE is considered a rare medical condition that accounts up to 4% of all non-variceal upper GI bleedings.

  • Age

    The mean age...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Burak, K. W., Lee, S. S., & Beck, P. L. (2001). Portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome. Gut, 49(6), 866–872.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jabbari, M., Cherry, R., Lough, J. O., Daly, D. S., Kinnear, D. G., & Goresky, C. A. (1984). Gastric antral vascular ectasia: The watermelon stomach. Gastroenterology, 87(5), 1165–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Montgomery, E. A., & Voltagio, L. (2012). Chapter 2, Stomach. In: Biopsy interpretation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Vol 1: Non-neoplastic. 2nd ed. (pp. 88–89). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  4. Selinger, C. P., & Ang, Y. S. (2008). Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE): An update on clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatments. Digestion, 77(2), 131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Westerhoff, M., Tretiakova, M., Hovan, L., Miller, J., Noffsinger, A., & Hart, J. (2010). CD61, CD31, and CD34 improve diagnostic accuracy in gastric antral vascular ectasia and portal hypertensive gastropathy: An immunohistochemical and digital morphometric study. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 34(4), 494–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Ferro de Beça
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Elisabete Rios
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathologyCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine of the University of PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.IPATIMUP – Institute of Pathology and Molecular Immunology of the University of PortoPortoPortugal