Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari


  • Andreia AlbuquerqueEmail author
Reference work entry


Delayed gastric emptying; Gastric stasis


Gastroparesis is a syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction of the stomach. It is traditionally associated with nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal pain.

The etiology is multifactorial and the most common causes are diabetes, postsurgical status, and idiopathic. Other causes include medication, Parkinson’s disease, collagen vascular disorders, thyroid dysfunction, liver disease, chronic renal insufficiency, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and miscellaneous.

Gastroparesis may be due to abnormalities of the fundus (post-vagotomy state, diabetes mellitus, and functional dyspepsia), abnormalities in antroduodenal contraction (low amplitude, frequency, and decreased antral motor function or dysfunction), pyloric dysfunction (idiopathic hypertrophic stenosis and diabetes gastroparesis), or abnormalities in small bowel motility. Diabetic...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Parkman, H. P., Hasler, W. L., Fisher, R. S., et al. (2004). American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: Diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis. Gastroenterology, 127, 1589–1591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Park, M. I., & Camilleri, M. (2006). Gastroparesis: Clinical update. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101, 1129–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Soykan, I., Sivri, B., Sarosiek, I., Kiernan, B., et al. (1998). Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long-term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 43, 2398–2404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jung, H. K., Choung, R. S., Locke, G. R., 3rd, et al. (2009). The incidence, prevalence and outcomes of patients with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1996 to 2006. Gastroenterology, 136, 1225–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Grover, M., Farrugia, G., Lurken, M. S., et al. (2011). Cellular changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology, 140, 1575–1585.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Centro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal