Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

  • Luis NovaisEmail author
  • Paula Chaves
Reference work entry




Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) includes chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Montreal consensus defined GERD as “a condition which develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications.”

Reflux esophagitis refers to a subset of GERD that has endoscopic or histological changes in the esophageal mucosa. Nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) refers to a clinical condition that evolves with typical GERD symptoms but with normal upper endoscopic features. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a complication of chronic GERD and is defined as an endoscopic alteration on the distal esophagus that shows intestinal metaplasia or columnar metaplasia at the biopsies, according to the American or British definition, respectively.

Clinical presentations of GERD vary considerably but can be logically grouped into three categories: typical symptoms, atypical symptoms, and...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Fass, R., Fennerty, M. B., & Vakil, N. (2001). Nonerosive reflux disease – Current concepts and dilemmas. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 96, 303–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Lundell, L. R., Dent, J., Bennett, J. R., Blum, A. L., Armstrong, D., Galmiche, J. P., Johnson, F., Hongo, M., Richter, J. E., Spechler, S. J., et al. (1999). Endoscopic assessment of oesophagitis: Clinical and functional correlates and further validation of the Los Angeles classification. Gut, 45, 172–180.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Richter, J. E., & Castell, D. O. (2012). The esophagus (5th ed.). Chichester: Willey-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Vaezi, M. F. (2006). An atlas of investigation and management: Esophageal diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (pp. 69–85). Oxford: Clinical Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Vakil, N., van Zanten, S. V., Kahrilas, P., Dent, J., & Jones, R. (2006). The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: A global evidence-based consensus. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101(8), 1900–1920.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurogastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Motility Laboratory, CEDE-Faculty of Medical SciencesNew University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco GentilLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal