Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Esophagitis, In Crohn’s Disease

  • Paula Borralho NunesEmail author
Reference work entry


Esophageal Crohn’s disease


Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, idiopathic, segmental transmural inflammatory disease arising from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors but observed predominantly in developed countries of the world. The precise etiology is unknown. The disease may involve one or more segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus. The ileum, the colon, the rectum, and the perianal region are the most frequent locations of disease involvement. However, esophageal involvement can also be present in patients with Crohn’s disease, even though CD involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract is almost invariably accompanied by small or large bowel disease.

Histologic abnormalities found in the upper GI tract may be contributory in establishing a specific diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. In the majority of cases, the proximal disease extends beyond the esophagus, involving the stomach and the duodenum too (Van...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Annunziata, M. L., Caviglia, R., Papparella, L. G., et al. (2012). Upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn’s disease: A prospective study on the role of upper endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 57(6), 1618–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Decker, G. A., Loftus, E. V., Jr., Pasha, T. M., et al. (2001). Crohn’s disease of the esophagus: Clinical features and outcomes. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 7(2), 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Huchzermeyer, H., Paul, F., Seifert, E., et al. (1976). Endoscopic results in five patients with Crohn’s disease of the esophagus. Endoscopy, 8, 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lenaerts, C., Roy, C. C., Vaillancourt, M., et al. (1989). High incidence of upper gastrointestinal tract in children with crohn’s disease. Pediatrics, 83(5), 777–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Van Assche, G., Dignass, A., Panes, J., European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO), et al. (2010). The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: Definitions and diagnosis. Journal of Crohn’s & Colitis, 4(1), 7–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Witte, A. M. C., Veenendaal, R. A., & Van Hogezand, R. A. (1998). Crohn’s disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract: The value of endoscopic examination. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 33, 100–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital Cuf Descobertas and Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa and Instituto de Anatomia Patológica, Faculdade de Medicina daUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal