Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Eosinophilic Esophagitis

  • Rafaela L. RegoEmail author
  • Jason T. Lewis
Reference work entry


Eosinophilic (allergic, idiopathic) esophagitis; Primary eosinophilic esophagitis


Eosinophilic esophagitis has been described as a variant of the family of presumably allergic eosinophilic disorders that can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract (Antonioli and Furuta 2005). The favored interpretation is that it is the result from local hypersensitivity to food- or blood-borne allergens and that antigen-presenting cells play an important role in its pathogenesis (Lucendo et al. 2007). It is a recently recognized disorder that has some features that may mimic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically, endoscopically, and histologically. By definition, patients have normal pH monitoring levels and fail to respond to antireflux therapy. Eosinophilic esophagitis tends to occur in children or young adults, with a strong male predominance, and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Many affected patients reveal an allergic history and have...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Antonioli, D. A., & Furuta, G. T. (2005). Allergic eosinophilic esophagitis: A primer for pathologists. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 22, 266–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Furuta, G. T., Liacouras, C. A., Collins, M. H., et al. (2007). Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: A systematic review and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterology, 133(4), 1342–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Genta, R. M., Spechler, S. J., & Souza, R. F. (2007). The twentieth eosinophil. Advances in Anatomic Pathology, 14, 340–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gonsalves, N. (2007). Food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal illness. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 36, 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Liacouras, C. A., & Ruchelli, E. (2004). Eosinophilic esophagitis. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 16, 560–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lucendo, A. J., Navarro, M., Comas, C., Pascual, J. M., Burgos, E., Santamaría, L., & Larrauri, J. (2007). Immunophenotypic characterization and quantification of the epithelial inflammatory infiltrate in eosinophilic esophagitis through stereology: an analysis of the cellular mechanisms of the disease and the immunologic capacity of the esophagus. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 31, 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Markowitz, J. E., Spergel, J. M., Ruchelli, E., & Liacouras, C. A. (2003). Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98, 777–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mishra, A., & Rothenberg, M. E. (2003). Intratracheal IL-13 induces eosinophilic esophagitis by an IL-5, eotaxin-1, and STAT6-dependent mechanism. Gastroenterology, 125, 1419–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Potter, J. W., Saeian, K., Staff, D., et al. (2004). Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An emerging problem with unique esophageal features. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 59, 355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Siafakas, C. G., Ryan, C. K., Brown, M. R., & Miller, T. L. (2000). Multiple esophageal rings: An association with eosinophilic esophagitis: Case report and review of the literature. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 95, 1572–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Spechler, S. J., Genta, R. M., & Souza, R. F. (2007). Thoughts on the complex relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic esophagitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 102, 1301–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Diagnóstico Laboratorial – Serviço de Anatomia PatológicaInstituto Portugues de Oncologia Lisboa Francisco Gentil, IPOLFG, E.P.ELisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo ClinicJacksonvilleUSA