Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastric Cardia (Proximal Stomach)

  • Chella R. S. van der PostEmail author
  • J. Han van Krieken
Reference work entry


Proximal stomach


The stomach is divided into four anatomic regions: cardia, fundus, corpus, and antropyloric. The gastric cardia is a narrow, ill-defined region and is not grossly distinctive or sharply demarcated. It represents the area of the mucosa located distal to the anatomic gastroesophageal junction and proximal to the body of the stomach (fundus/corpus) that is composed entirely of oxyntic glands. The cardia is a very short segment (<0.4 cm) of the mucosa that is typically composed of pure mucous glands or mixed mucous and oxyntic glands.

The extent of the cardiac mucosa and even its existence as a component of the normal stomach has been disputed. In many studies an attempt has been performed to delineate the normal histology of the true gastric cardia, using biopsies, resections, or autopsy specimens. Some studies, mainly in adults, reported the presence of gastric cardia in only 50% of the studied population. A significant proportion of patients with...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Chandrasoma, P. (2005). Controversies of the cardiac mucosa and Barrett’s oesophagus. Histopathology, 46(4), 361–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. De Hertogh, G., Van Eyken, P., Ectors, N., & Geboes, K. (2005). On the origin of cardiac mucosa: A histological and immunohistochemical study of cytokeratin expression patterns in the developing esophagogastric junction region and stomach. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 11(29), 4490–4496.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Filipe, M. I. (1979). Mucins in the human gastrointestinal epithelium: A review. Investigative & Cell Pathology, 2(3), 195–216.Google Scholar
  4. Huang, Q. (2011). Controversies of cardiac glands in the proximal stomach: A critical review. Journal of Gastroenterology and hepatology, 26(3), 450–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Odze, R. D. (2005). Unraveling the mystery of the gastroesophageal junction: A pathologist’s perspective. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 100(8), 1853–1867.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chella R. S. van der Post
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Han van Krieken
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands