Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Glycogenic Acanthosis

  • Rita Canas MarquesEmail author
  • Ricardo Fonseca
Reference work entry


Hyperplasia; Leukoplakia


First named by Rywlin and Ortega (1970), glycogenic acanthosis is an esophageal disorder characterized by multifocal white plaques of hyperplastic squamous epithelium with abundant intracellular glycogen deposits (Lopes et al. 2010). Its pathogenesis remains unclear; no positive correlation has been made between glycogenic acanthosis and dietary habitus, the use of tobacco, or significant alcoholic intake (Glick et al. 1982). It has been suggested that this entity could be a nonspecific pattern of epithelial response to anatomical site-specific injury (Fyfe and Garcia 1998). However, an association between glycogenic acanthosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease has been reported (Berliner et al. 1981; Lopes et al. 2010), Cowden’s syndrome (Coriat et al. 2011; Kay et al. 1997; Lashner et al. 1986; McGarrity et al. 2003), and Celiac disease (Suoglu et al. 2004). Unless there is a coexisting disease, patients with glycogenic acanthosis are...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Belafsky, P. C. (2004). Glycogenic acanthosis. Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal, 83, 229.Google Scholar
  2. Bender, M. D., et al. (1973). Glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus: A form of benign epithelial hyperplasia. Gastroenterology, 65, 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berliner, L., et al. (1981). Glycogen plaques (glycogenic acanthosis) of the esophagus. Radiology, 141, 607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Coriat, R., et al. (2011). Endoscopic findings in Cowden syndrome. Endoscopy, 43, 723–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fyfe, B. S., & Garcia, F. U. (1998). Laryngeal glycogenic acanthosis presenting as leukoplakia. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 124, 1029–1030.Google Scholar
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  7. Kay, P. S., et al. (1997). Diffuse esophageal glycogenic acanthosis: An endoscopic marker of Cowden’s disease. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 92, 1038–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lashner, B. A., et al. (1986). Ganglioneuromatosis of the colon and extensive glycogenic acanthosis in Cowden’s disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 31, 213–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, J. K., et al. (2007). Education and imaging. Gastrointestinal: Glycogenic acanthosis. Journal of Gastroenterology Hepatology, 22, 1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lopes, S., et al. (2010). Glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus: An unusually endoscopic appearance. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas, 102, 341–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. McGarrity, T. J., et al. (2003). GI polyposis and glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus associated with PTEN mutation positive Cowden syndrome in the absence of cutaneous manifestations. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98, 1429–1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rywlin, A. M., & Ortega, R. (1970). Glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus. Archives of Pathology, 90, 439–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Stern, Z., et al. (1980). Glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus. A benign but confusing endoscopic lesion. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 74, 261–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Suoglu, O. D., et al. (2004). Celiac disease and glycogenic acanthosis: A new association? Acta Paediatrica, 93, 568–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil and Faculdade de Ciências MédicasUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Serviço de Anatomia PatológicaInstituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco GentilLisboaPortugal