Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Typhoid Fever

  • Karel GeboesEmail author
Reference work entry


Enteric fever; Gastric fever; Slow fever


Typhoid fever is a severe systemic bacterial disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by prolonged fever, persistent bacteremia and severe inflammation of the intestines, especially the lymphoid tissue. Salmonella typhihas been a human pathogen for thousands of years thriving in conditions of poor sanitation and crowding. The name is derived from the ancient Greek “typhos” which means “cloud” or “smoke” and refers to the level of consciousness of the patients in the advanced stage of the disease. The classic presentation includes fever, malaise, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhea or constipation (in up to 38% of the patients). Untreated disease progresses through different stages. Incubation lasts 5–21 days depending on the health and immune status of the patient and the virulence of the bacteria. The onset is usually insidious with low-grade fever appearing first. During active invasion of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Anita, S., Amir, K. M., Fadzilah, K., Ahamad, J., Noorhaida, U., Marina, K., Paid, M. Y., & Hanif, Z. (2012). Risk factors for typhoid outbreak in Sungai Congkak Recreational park, Selangor 2009. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 67, 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Geboes, K. (2013). Inflammatory disorders of the small intestine. In N. A. Shepherd, B. F. Warren, G. T. Williams, J. K. Greenson, G. Y. Lauwers, & M. R. Novelli (Eds.), Morson and Dawson’s gastrointestinal pathology (pp. 315–372). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  3. Johnson, K. J. (2012). CDC updates recommendations for typhoid vaccination. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 54, 5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kaur, J., & Jain, S. K. (2012). Role of antigens and virulence factors of Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi in its pathogenesis. Microbiological Research, 167, 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Khan, M. I., Sajid Bashir Soofi, R., Ochiai, L., Khan, M. J., Sahito, S. M., Habib, M. A., Puri, M. K., von Seidlein, L., Park, J. K., You, Y. A., Ali, M., Nizami, Q., Acosta, C. J., Sack, R. B., Clemens, J. D., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2012). Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and patterns of drug resistance of Salmonella typhi in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 6, 704–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Sabitha, P., Prabha Adhikari, M. R., Chowdary, A., Prabhu, M., Soofi, M., Shetty, M., Kamath, A., Lokaranjan, S. S., & Bangera, S. S. (2004). Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two different brands of Salmonella typhi VI capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58, 141–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Smith, J. H. (1976). Typhoid fever. In C. H. Binford & D. H. Connor (Eds.), Pathology of tropical and extraordinary diseases (pp. 123–129). Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyN. Goormaghtig Institute, University GentGentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PathologyKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium