Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Neuroendocrine Tumor, Colon and Rectum

  • Ozgul SagolEmail author
Reference work entry


Carcinoid tumor; Endocrine neoplasm; Neuroendocrine carcinoma; Neuroendocrine neoplasm


Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is a general term including broad family of neoplasms originating in neural and endocrine structures. NEN may be localized in pure endocrine organs (thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands), nerve plexuses, extraadrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas), and diffuse endocrine system in different organs including gastrointestinal tract. Fourteen different cell types, producing variety of hormones, have been described as components of diffuse endocrine system. Neuroendocrine cells of diffuse endocrine system that give rise to gastrointestinal NENs are endodermally derived and originate from gastrointestinal stem cells. Neuroendocrine cells and their neoplastic counterparts secrete peptide hormones and biogenic amines. Besides, with electron microscopy, typical large neurosecretory granules and small synaptic like vesicles are shown in their cytoplasm....

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References and Further Reading

  1. Caplin, M., Sundin, A., Nillson, O., Baum, R. P., Klose, K. J., Kelestimur, F., Plöckinger, U., Papotti, M., Salazar, R., Pascher, A., all other Barcelona Consensus Conference participants. (2012). ENETS consensus guidelines for the management of patients with digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms: Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms. Neuroendocrinology, 95, 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Klimstra, D. S. (2016). Pathologic classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 30, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Klimstra, D. S., Arnold, R., Capella, C., Kloppel, G., Komminoth, P., Solcia, E., & Rind, G. (2010). Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the colon and rectum. In T. F. Bosman, F. Carneiro, R. H. Hruban, & N. D. Theise (Eds.), WHO classification of tumors of the digestive system (pp. 174–177). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  4. Kloppel, G. (2011). Classification and pathology of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 18, S1–S16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kloppel, G., Rindi, G., Anlauf, M., Perren, A., & Komminoth, P. (2007). Site specific biology and pathology of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Virchows Archiv, 451(suppl 1), S9–S27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rindi, G., & Wiedenmann, B. (2012). Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gut and pancreas: New insights. Nature Reviews Endrocrinology, 8, 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyDokuz Eylul University Medical SchoolInciralti, IzmirTurkey