Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Ischemic Bowel Disease

  • Ann DriessenEmail author
Reference work entry


Intestinal ischemia


Ischemic bowel disease, which may affect whole or parts of the gastrointestinal tract, is due to an imbalance between the blood supply, which is decreased, and the metabolic demands of the gastrointestinal tract. Ischemic bowel disease rarely involves the esophagus or the stomach, but mainly affects the small intestine and the colon.

The gastrointestinal tract is nearly completely supplied by three arteries, namely the coeliac axis, the superior mesenteric artery, and the inferior mesenteric artery. The coeliac axis, originating from the anterior aortae, gives rise to three blood vessels: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The coeliac axis and its branches supply the distal part of the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the proximal duodenum, and the pancreas.

The superior mesenteric artery nourishes the small intestine beginning from the distal duodenum, the head of the pancreas, and the ascending and the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Brandt, L. J., & Boley, S. J. (2000). AGA technical review on intestinal ischemia. American Gastrointestinal Association. Gastroenterology, 118, 954–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008). Gastrointestinal pathology. An atlas and text (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  3. Odze, R. D., & Goldblum, J. R. (2009). Surgical pathology of the GI tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. Umphrey, H., Canon, C. L., & Lockhart, M. E. (2008). Differential diagnosis of small bowel ischemia. Radiologic Clinics of North America, 46, 943–952, vi–vii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Vollmar, B., & Menger, M. D. (2011). Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion: Microcirculatory pathology and functional consequences. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery/Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie, 396, 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital AntwerpEdegemBelgium
  2. 2.Maastricht University Medical CentreMaastrichtThe Netherlands