Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari


  • Arzu EnsariEmail author
Reference work entry


Cercomonas intestinalis; Giardia duodenalis; Giardia intestinalis; Giardia lamblia; Lamblia intestinalis; Megastoma enterica


Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is the leading GI protozoan disease worldwide with an increase in summer and autumn. Many countries, especially developing countries show a high prevalence of giardiasis. Infection occurs by fecal-oral transmission, contaminated food and water, and person to person transmission, particularly in homosexuals. It is commonly observed in patients with selective IgA deficiency and in HIV-infected patients. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea and vomiting, malabsorption, and weight loss are the main presenting symptoms. Giardia can be diagnosed by stool examination, examination of duodenal aspirates or duodenal biopsies. The taxonomy is giardiasis is complicated as there are seven known species including G. duodenaliswhich is divided into eight assemblages. They are based on...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Barry, M. A., Weatherhead, J. E., Hotez, P. J., & Woc-Colburn, L. (2013). Childhood parasitic infections endemic to the United States. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 60(2), 471–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Muhsen, K., & Levine, M. M. (2012). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55(Suppl 4), S271–S293.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Nash, T. E. (2013). Unraveling how Giardia infections cause disease. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(6), 2346–2347.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Oberhuber, G., Kastner, N., & Stolte, M. (1997). Giardiasis: A histologic analysis of 567 cases. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 32, 48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ortega, Y. N., & Adam, R. D. (1997). Giardia: Overview and update. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 25, 545–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyAnkara University Medical SchoolSihhiyeTurkey