Cercomonas intestinalis; Giardia duodenalis; Giardia intestinalis; Giardia lamblia; Lamblia intestinalis; Megastoma enterica
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is the leading GI protozoan disease worldwide with an increase in summer and autumn. Many countries, especially developing countries show a high prevalence of giardiasis. Infection occurs by fecal-oral transmission, contaminated food and water, and person to person transmission, particularly in homosexuals. It is commonly observed in patients with selective IgA deficiency and in HIV-infected patients. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea and vomiting, malabsorption, and weight loss are the main presenting symptoms. Giardia can be diagnosed by stool examination, examination of duodenal aspirates or duodenal biopsies. The taxonomy is giardiasis is complicated as there are seven known species including G. duodenaliswhich is divided into eight assemblages. They are based on...