Coeliac sprue; Gluten-induced enteropathy or gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE); Nontropical sprue
Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine characterized by malabsorption after ingestion of wheat gluten or related proteins in rye (secalins) and barley (hordeins) in individuals with a certain genetic background. The pathogenesis involves a T cell-mediated immune response and autoreactive B lymphocytes that produce autoantibodies directed against gliadin, endomysium, or tissue transglutaminase in individuals with a genetic susceptibility related to HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. The diagnostic scheme of GSE consists of clinical history and symptomatology, HLA subtyping, serologic testing (tTG, EMA, and AGA), histological findings in proximal small intestinal biopsy, and clinical and serological (optionally histological) response to a GFD.
Current estimates show that the incidence is at 0.5–1% in wheat-eating...
References and Further Reading
- Ensari, A. (2010). Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease): Controversies in diagnosis and classification. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 134, 826–836.Google Scholar
- Özakıncı H, Kırmızı A, Savaş B, Kalkan Ç, Soykan İ, Çetinkaya H, Kuloğlu Z, Kansu A, Gürkan ÖE, Dalgıç B, Şentürk Z, Ensari A. (2016). Classification Chaos in coeliac disease: does it really matter? Pathol Res Pract. 212(12), 1174–1178.Google Scholar