Advertisement

Automotive Industry

  • Horst Christoph Broding
  • Manigé Fartasch
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The dermatological health care has to consider country-specific allocations between parts manufacturing and assembly facilities in vehicle production.

The automotive industry of passenger vehicles and trucks includes industries associated with the production, retailing, and maintenance of (motor-) vehicles.

Dermatological concerns and hazards differ between vehicle parts manufacturing, vehicle assembly, and vehicle repair and maintenance.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) should involve appropriate gloves and skin covering. Substance-specific gloves or sleeves should be worn when using body filler and possible skin contact with paints and glues. Appropriate skin protection should also be worn for welding, grinding, and cutting.

Keywords

Automotive industry Allergic contact dermatitis Skin irritation Protective gloves 

References

  1. Alomar A, Conde-Salazar L, Romaguera C (1985) Occupational dermatoses from cutting oils. Contact Dermatitis 12:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alto-Korte K, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Kuuliala O, Jolanki R (2007) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one. Contact Dermatitis 56:160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alto-Korte K, Kuuliala O, Suuronen K, Alanko K (2008) Occupational contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers. Contact Dermatitis 59:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alto-Korte K, Pesonen M, Kuuliala O, Alanko K, Jolanki R (2010) Contact allergy to aliphatic polyisocyanates based on hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI). Contact Dermatitis 63:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Apfelbacher CJ, Radulescu M, Diepgen TL, Funke U (2008) Occurrence and prognosis of hand dermatitis in the car industry: results from the PACO follow up study (PACO II). Contact Dermatitis 58:322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apfelbacher CJ, Funke U, Radulescu M, Diepgen TL (2010) Determinants of current hand eczema: results from case-control studies nested in the PACO follow-up study (PACO II). Contact Dermatitis 62:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Attwa E, el-Laithy N (2009) Contact dermatitis in car repair workers. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartels T, Bock W, Braun J, Busch C, Buss W, Dresel W, Freiler C, Harperscheid M, Heckler RP, Haerner D, Kubicki F, Lingg G, Losch A, Luther R, Mang T, Noll S, Omeis J (2003) Lubricants and lubrication. In: Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  9. Bello D, Woskie SR, Streicher RP, Stowe MH, Sparer J, Redlich CA, Cullen MR, Liu Y (2005) A laboratory investigation of the effectiveness of various skin and surface decontaminants for aliphatic polyisocyanates. J Environ Monit 7:716–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bello D, Redlich CA, Stowe MH, Sparer J, Woskie SR, Streicher RP, Hosgood HD, Liu Y (2008) Skin exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in the auto body repair and refinishing industry: II. A quantitative assessment. Ann Occup Hyg 52:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bjorkner B (1999) Plastic materials. In: Adams RM (ed) Occupational skin disease. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 434–462Google Scholar
  12. Breuer D, Fartasch M (2007) Pitfalls in interpretation of positive patch test reaction in metal workers to triethanolamine (TEA). Air Quality Control 67(1/2):12–16Google Scholar
  13. Cahill J, Keegel T, Dharmage S, Nugriaty D, Nixon R (2005) Prognosis of contact dermatitis in epoxy resin workers. Contact Dermatitis 52:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Camarasa JG, Romaguera C, Serra-Baldrich E, Vilaplana J (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis from Biobans in Spanish metalworkers. Contact Dermatitis 29:98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Boer EM, van Ketel WG, Bruynzeel DP (1989a) Dermatoses in metal workers. (I). Irritant contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 20:212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Boer EM, van Ketel WG, Bruynzeel DP (1989b) Dermatoses in metal workers. (II). Allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 20:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Joode BW, Vermeulen R, Heederik D, van Ginkel K, Kromhout H (2007) Evaluation of 2 self-administered questionnaires to ascertain dermatitis among metal workers and its relation with exposure to metalworking fluids. Contact Dermatitis 56(6):311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickel H, Kuss O, Schmidt A, Kretz J, Diepgen TL (2002) Importance of irritant contact dermatitis in occupational skin disease. Am J Clin Dermatol 3:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donovan JC, Kudla I, Holness DL (2007) Hand dermatitis in auto mechanics and machinists. Dermatitis 18:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Einarsson O, Kylin B, Lindstedt G, Wahlberg JE (1975) Chromium, cobalt and nickel in used cutting fluids. Contact Dermatitis 1:182–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frasch HF, Zang LY, Barbero AM, Anderson SE (2010) In vitro dermal penetration of 4-chloro-3-methylphenol from commercial metal working fluid and aqueous vehicles. J Toxicol Environ Health A 73:1394–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Funke U, Diepgen TL, Fartasch M (1995) Identification of high-risk groups for irritant contact dermatitis by occupational physicians. Curr Probl Dermatol 23:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Funke U, Fartasch M, Diepgen TL (2001) Incidence of work-related hand eczema during apprenticeship: first results of a prospective cohort study in the car industry. Contact Dermatitis 44:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Geier J, Lessmann H, Dickel H, Frosch PJ, Koch P, Becker D, Jappe U, Aberer W, Schnuch A, Uter W (2004) Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG). Contact Dermatitis 51:118–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geier J, Lessmann H, Becker D, Bruze M, Frosch PJ, Fuchs T, Jappe U, Koch P, Pfohler C, Skudlik C (2006) Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids: results of a multicentre study with a second series. Contact Dermatitis 55:322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Godderis L, Deschuyffeleer T, Roelandt H, Veulemans H, Moens G (2008) Exposure to metalworking fluids and respiratory and dermatological complaints in a secondary aluminium plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:845–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Halkier-Sorensen L (1996) Occupational skin diseases. Contact Dermatitis 35:1–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hansen MB, Menne T, Johansen JD (2006) Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in leather and elicitation of eczema. Contact Dermatitis 54:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hebisch R, Auffarth J (2001) Dermal exposure: how to get information. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henriks-Eckerman ML, Suuronen K, Jolanki R, Riala R, Tuomi T (2007) Determination of occupational exposure to alkanolamines in metal-working fluids. Ann Occup Hyg 51:153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Henriks-Eckerman ML, Suuronen K, Jolanki R (2008) Analysis of allergens in metalworking fluids. Contact Dermatitis 5:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hino R, Nishio D, Kabashima K, Tokura Y (2008) Percutaneous penetration via hand eczema is the major accelerating factor for systemic absorption of toluene and xylene during car spray painting. Contact Dermatitis 58:76–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. International Labour Organization (2009) ILO database of labour statistics. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  34. Javelaud B, Vian L, Molle R, Allain P, Allemand B, André B, Barbier F, Churet AM, Dupuis J, Galand M, Millet F, Talmon J, Touron C, Vaissière M, Vechambre D, Vieules M, Viver D (1998) Benzene exposure in car mechanics and road tanker drivers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71(4):277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson W Jr (2001) Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate. Int J Toxicol 20(Suppl 4):13–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Alanko K, Pfaffli P, Jolanki R (1999) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from unsaturated polyester resin in a car repair putty. Int J Dermatol 38:447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kawamura T, Fukuda S, Ohtake N, Furue M, Tamaki K (1996) Lichen planus-like contact dermatitis due to methacrylic acid esters. Br J Dermatol 134:358–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kristensen O (1992) A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry. Contact Dermatitis 26:341–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lerbaek A, Kyvik KO, Ravn H, Menne T, Agner T (2007) Incidence of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort: genetic and environmental risk factors. Br J Dermatol 157:552–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lessmann H, Uter W, Schnuch A, Geier J (2009) Skin sensitizing properties of the ethanolamines mono-, di-, and triethanolamine. Data analysis of a multicentre surveillance network (IVDK ) and review of the literature. Contact Dermatitis 5:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liden C (1994) Occupational contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy. Sci Total Environ 148:283–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liden C, Rondell E, Skare L, Nalbanti A (1998) Nickel release from tools on the Swedish market. Contact Dermatitis 39:127–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Linnainmaa M, Kangas J, Kalliokoski P (1996) Exposure to airborne metals in the manufacture and maintenance of hard metal satellite blades. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 57(2):196–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu Y, Bello D, Sparer JA, Stowe MH, Gore RJ, Woskie SR, Cullen MR, Redlich CA (2007) Skin exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in the auto body repair and refinishing industry: a qualitative assessment. Ann Occup Hyg 51:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu Y, Stowe MH, Bello D, Sparer J, Gore RJ, Cullen MR, Redlich CA, Woskie SR (2009) Skin exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in the auto body repair and refinishing industry: III. A personal exposure algorithm. Ann Occup Hyg 53:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Maibach HI, Mathias CT (2001) Allergic contact dermatitis from cycloaliphatic epoxide in jet aviation hydraulic fluid. Contact Dermatitis 45:56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mathias CG, Adams RM (1984) Allergic contact dermatitis from rosin used as soldering flux. J Am Acad Dermatol 10:454–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meding B, Jarvholm B (2002) Hand eczema in Swedish adults – changes in prevalence between 1983 and 1996. J Invest Dermatol 118:719–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meding B, Barregard L, Marcus K (1994) Hand eczema in car mechanics. Contact Dermatitis 30:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mirer FE (2010) New evidence on the health hazards and control of metalworking fluids since completion of the OSHA advisory committee report. Am J Ind Med 53:792–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moen BE, Hollund BE, Torp S (1995) A descriptive study of health problems on car mechanics’ hands. Occup Med (Lond) 45:318–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Newhouse ML (1964) Epidemiology of skin disease in an automobile factory. Br J Ind Med 21:287–293PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Nilsson E, Back O (1986) The importance of anamnestic information of atopy, metal dermatitis and earlier hand eczema for the development of hand dermatitis in women in wet hospital work. Acta Derm Venereol 66:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Niosh-Institute (2001) Metal working fluids, potentially hazardous components. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  55. Papa G, Romano A, Quaratino D, Di FM, Viola M, Sernia S, Boccia I, Di GM, Venuti A, Calvieri S (2000) Contact dermatoses in metal workers. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 13:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pisaniello DL, Muriale L (1989) The use of isocyanate paints in auto refinishing-a survey of isocyanate exposures and related work practices in South Australia. Ann Occup Hyg 33:563–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rademaker M (2000) Occupational epoxy resin allergic contact dermatitis. Australas J Dermatol 41:222–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Redlich CA (2010) Skin exposure and asthma: is there a connection? Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:134–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Riihimaki H, Kurppa K, Karjalainen A, Palo L, Jolanki R, Keskinen H, Makinen I, Saalo A, Kauppinen T (2010) Occupational diseases in Finland in 2002. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  60. Routledge R (1971) Contact dermatitis and bronchial irritation due to ammonium acrylate in the motor industry. Trans Soc Occup Med 21:59–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rystedt I (1985a) Atopic background in patients with occupational hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis 12:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rystedt I (1985b) Work-related hand eczema in atopics. Contact Dermatitis 12:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shah M, Lewis FM, Gawkrodger DJ (1998) Nickel as an occupational allergen. A survey of 368 nickel-sensitive subjects. Arch Dermatol 134:1231–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sinitsyn BI, Logunov VP, Fedotov VP (1988) Epidemiology and pathogenesis of occupational skin diseases in automobile factory workers. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1:56–59Google Scholar
  65. Sjogren I, Hillerdal G, Andersson A, Zetterstrom O (1980) Hard metal lung disease: importance of cobalt in coolants. Thorax 35:653–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Skoet R, Olsen J, Mathiesen B, Iversen L, Johansen JD, Agner T (2004) A survey of occupational hand eczema in Denmark. Contact Dermatitis 51:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stingeni L, Bellini V, Lisi P (2008) Occupational airborne contact urticaria and asthma: simultaneous immediate and delayed allergy to diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate. Contact Dermatitis 58:112–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Suuronen K, Alto-Korte K, Piipari R, Tuomi T, Jolanki R (2007a) Occupational dermatitis and allergic respiratory diseases in finnish metalworking machinists. Occup Med (Lond) 57:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Suuronen K, Jolanki R, Luukkonen R, Alanko K, Susitaival P (2007b) Self-reported skin symptoms in metal workers. Contact Dermatitis 57:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yokota K, Minami T, Michitsuji H, Fujio T, Yamada S (2004) Occupational dermatitis from soldering flux. Ind Health 42:383–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zsigmond A (1985) Sudden onset irritant dermatitis in a car component factory. J Soc Occup Med 35:62–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair - Occupational Medicine and Corporate Health ManagementFaculty of Health - School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke UniversityWittenGermany
  2. 2.Department for Clinical and Experimental Occupational DermatologyInstitute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University, Bochum (IPA)BochumGermany

Personalised recommendations