• Randolf Brehler
Living reference work entry


Occupational skin diseases are reported only in single beekeepers.

Principally beekeepers are at high risk for the development of immediate-type allergy to bee venom; sensitization prevalence is in the range of 30–60%.

In some cases, IgE-mediated allergy was reported against honey, pollens, royal jelly, mold fungi, and bee body allergens.

Important contact allergens are propolis, beeswax, royal jelly, and essential oils.

Potential irritants are chemicals used for the treatment of bee infections with parasitic mites and mold fungi.


Beekeeper Bee venom Propolis Beeswax Rojal jelly Honey Essential oils Anaphylaxis Immediate-type allergy Contact dermatitis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany

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