Encyclopedia of Wireless Networks

Living Edition
| Editors: Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Xiaodong Lin, Kuan Zhang

Brain-Machine Interfaces

  • Josep Miquel JornetEmail author
  • Michal K. Stachowiak
  • Sasitharan Balasubramaniam
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32903-1_226-1


Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) refer to communication systems between the brain and an external device. Desired properties of BMIs include bidirectionality, high spatial and temporal resolution, low invasiveness, accuracy, and robustness. In this paper, the different types of BMIs, the state of the art, and the future directions are discussed, in addition to highlighting their key applications.

Historical Background

For many decades, the interaction between humans and machines has been restricted to the exchange of visual, auditory, and tactile information. A conceptual analysis of the existing human-machine interfaces (HMI) reveals that the amount of useful information that can be exchanged between humans and machines is not limited by the capabilities of the human brain or those of the machine processor, but by the interfaces between them. Simply stated, from an engineering perspective, the human being can be modeled as a macro-systemwith a processing powerhouse, i.e.,...

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This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. CBET-1706050.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josep Miquel Jornet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michal K. Stachowiak
    • 2
  • Sasitharan Balasubramaniam
    • 3
  1. 1.Ultra-broadband Nano Communication and Networking LaboratoryUniversity at Buffalo, The State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Anatomical SciencesUniversity at Buffalo, The State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.Telecommunication Software and Systems GroupWaterford Institute of TechnologyWaterfordIreland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Adam Noel
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Warwick, UKWarwickUK