Women and Politics Under Bureaucracy Section

  • Ellen AbakahEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3497-1



  • Local governance: the active involvement of local population in the political, social, and citizenship activities within the territorial boundaries of a local government

  • Political participation: a direct and indirect form of participation where citizens cast votes, elect representatives with mandates to make and executive public policies, and have a right to contest and win public elections (Wagle 2006)

  • Decentralization: the devolving of political authorities from the central to the local levels of government


The continual underrepresentation of women in national and local politics marks a fundamental deficit in governance that has raised concerns for international, national, and local actors in democratic societies. Consequently, the past decades have seen diverse implementation strategies aimed at redress. For instance, the international conferences on women (Mexico 1975, Copenhagen 1980,...

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, School of EducationUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia