Governance of Ocean Beyond National Jurisdiction

  • Md. Mostafa Hosain
Living reference work entry




According to UNCLOS, ABNJ includes high sea covering water column of the ocean beyond 200 nm from the baseline and the area which consists of the ocean floor, sea bed, and subsoil of area beyond outer limits of continental shelf.


Article 1, Act No 10 of 2004 of National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act of South Africa defines bioprospecting as “any search on, or development or application of, indigenous biological resources for commercial or industrial exploitation, and includes the systematic search, collection or gathering of such resources or making extractions from such resources for purposes of such research, development or application.”


Ocean covers seven tenths of the planet (World Ocean Assessment I, 2016). It is highly diverse with resources and...

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawBRAC UniversityDhakaBangladesh