Involuntary “Members”

  • Brittany L. Peterson
  • Kristen E. Okamoto
Living reference work entry



Involuntary “members” are those individuals whose relationships with an organization, group, or community are without choice; rather they are mandatory, compulsory, and enforced against their will. Nonprofit and volunteer organizations often serve beneficiaries who are currently in or attempting to separate from these types of organizational relationships.


Historically, nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have been perceived as altruistic entities that exist for the betterment of society. They are typically understood to be voluntary organizations created to meet a public need where beneficiaries go to willingly receive services. And while this is true in part, this prevailing assumption has been challenged in recent years with the corporatization of the nonprofit industry. This shifting landscape of nonprofits has expanded our understanding of what it means to engage in nonprofit...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ohio UniversityAthensUSA
  2. 2.Clemson UniversityClemsonUSA