Organizational Justice

  • Juliana D. LillyEmail author
Living reference work entry



Organizational justice refers to people’s perceptions of fairness in organizations, particularly in the workplace. Four distinct dimensions, or types, of organizational justice have been identified (distributive, procedural, interactional, and informational), but researchers have also focused on a fifth dimension referred to as overall justice.
  • Distributive justice refers to the fairness of decision outcomes such as the allocation of pay raises or other resources in an organization.

  • Procedural justice refers to the fairness of decision-making procedures leading to a decision outcome.

  • Interactional justice refers to the fairness of interpersonal treatment during the decision-making process such as treating those involved with dignity and respect throughout the decision process.

  • Informational...


Procedural Justice Distributive Justice Relative Deprivation Organizational Justice Social Exchange Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adams J (1963) Toward an understanding of inequity. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 67:422–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams J (1965) Inequity in social exchange. In: Berkowitz L (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 267–299Google Scholar
  3. Ambrose M, Arnaud A (2005) Distributive and procedural justice: construct distinctiveness, construct interdependence, and overall justice. In: Greenberg J, Colquitt J (eds) The handbook of organizational justice. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 59–84Google Scholar
  4. Ambrose M, Wo D, Griffith M (2015) Overall justice: past, present, and future. In: Ambrose M, Cropanzano R (eds) Oxford handbook of justice in the workplace. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 109–135, ProQuest Ebook Central. Web. 22 August 2016Google Scholar
  5. Bies R (2015) Interactional justice: looking backward, looking forward. In: Ambrose M, Cropanzano R (eds) Oxford handbook of justice in the workplace. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 89–107, ProQuest Ebook Central. Web. 22 August 2016Google Scholar
  6. Bies R, Moag J (1986) Interactional justice: communication criteria of fairness. In: Lewicki RJ, Sheppard BH, Bazerman MH (eds) Research on negotiation in organizations. JAI Press, Greenwich, pp 43–55Google Scholar
  7. Bies R, Tripp TM (1996) Beyond distrust: “getting even” and the need for revenge. In: Kramer RM, Tyler T (eds) Trust in organizations. Sage, Newbury Park, pp 246–260Google Scholar
  8. Blader S, Tyler T (2015) Relational models of procedural justice. In: Ambrose M, Cropanzano R (eds) Oxford handbook of justice in the workplace. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 351–369, ProQuest Ebook Central. Web. 22 August 2016Google Scholar
  9. Blau P (1964) Exchange and power in social life. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Brockner J, Wiesenfeld B (1996) An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychol Bull 120:189–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colquitt JA, Conlon DE, Wesson MJ, Porter C, Ng K (2001) Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. J Appl Psychol 86:425–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colquitt J, Greenberg J, Zapata-Phelan C (2005) What is organizational justice? A historical overview. In: Greenberg J, Colquitt J (eds) Handbook of organizational justice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 3–56Google Scholar
  13. Colquitt JA, Scott BA, Rodell JB, Long DM, Zapata CP, Conlon DE, Wesson MJ (2013) Justice at the millennium, a decade later: a meta-analytic test of social exchange and affect-based perspectives. J Appl Psychol 98:199–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cropanzano R, Prehar C, Chen P (2002) Using social exchange theory to distinguish procedural from interactional justice. Group Org Manag 27:324–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cropanzano R, Bowen D, Gilliland S (2007) The management of organizational justice. Acad Manag Perspect 21:34–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deutsch M (1975) Equity, equality, and need: what determines which value will be used as the basis for distributive justice? J Soc Issues 31:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Easton D (1965) A systems analysis of political life. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  18. Folger R (1986) Rethinking equity theory: a referent cognitions model. In: Bierhoff HW, Cohen RL, Greenberg J (eds) Research in social relations. Plenum Press, New York, pp 145–162Google Scholar
  19. Folger R (1993) Reactions to mistreatment at work. In: Murnighan K (ed) Social psychology in organizations: advances in theory and research. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 161–183Google Scholar
  20. Greenberg J (1993) The social side of fairness: interpersonal and informational classes of organizational justice. In: Cropanzano R (ed) Justice in the workplace: approaching fairness in human resource management. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 79–103Google Scholar
  21. Homans G (1958) Social behavior as exchange. Am J Sociol 63:597–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones D, Skarlicki D (2005) The effects of overhearing peers discuss an authority’s fairness reputation on reactions to subsequent treatment. J Appl Psychol 90(2):363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Laschinger H (2004) Hospital nurses’ perceptions of respect and organizational justice. J Nurs Adm 34:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leventhal G (1976) The distribution of rewards and resources in groups and organizations. In: Berkowitz IL (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 9. Academic, New York, pp 91–131Google Scholar
  25. Leventhal G (1980) What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationship. In: Gergen K, Greenberg M, Willis R (eds) Social exchange: advances in theory and research. Plenum Press, New York, pp 27–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lilly J, Virick M, Hadani M (2010) The dynamic nature of justice: influential effects of time and work outcomes on long-term perceptions of justice. Soc Justice Res 23:37–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lilly J, Virick M, Wipawayangkool K (2015) Recency effects in justice and organizational citizenship behavior: the impact of coping style. J Bus Strateg 32:71–109Google Scholar
  28. Lind A, Tyler T (1988) The social psychology of procedural justice. Plenum Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lind A, van den Bos K (2002) When fairness works: a general of uncertainty management. In: Staw BM, Kramer RM (eds) Research in organizational behavior, vol 24. Elsevier, Boston, pp 181–223Google Scholar
  30. Patient D, Cojuharence I, Fortin M (2015) The “when” of justice events and why it matters. In: Ambrose M, Cropanzano R (eds) Oxford handbook of justice in the workplace. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 309–327, ProQuest Ebook Central. Web. 22 August 2016Google Scholar
  31. Proudfoot D, Lind A (2015) Fairness heuristic theory, the uncertainty management model, and fairness at work. In: Ambrose M, Cropanzano R (eds) Oxford handbook of justice in the workplace. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 371–385, ProQuest Ebook Central. Web. 22 August 2016Google Scholar
  32. Stouffer SA, Suchman EA, DeVinney LC, Star SA, Williams RM (1949) Studies in social psychology in world war II: the American soldier, vol 1, Adjustment during army life. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  33. Tajfel H, Turner J (1979) An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In: Austin WG, Worchel S (eds) The social psychology of intergroup relations. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, pp 33–47Google Scholar
  34. Tepper B (2000) Consequences of abusive supervision. Acad Manage J 43:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thau S, Bennett R, Mitchell M, Marrs M (2009) How management style moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and workplace deviance: an uncertainty management theory perspective. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 108(1):79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thibaut J, Walker L (1975) Procedural justice: a psychological analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  37. Thibaut J, Walker L (1978) A theory of procedure. Calif Law Rev 66:541–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tripp T, Bies R (2009) Getting even: the truth about workplace revenge – and how to stop it. Josey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  39. Tyler T, Blader S (2000) Cooperation in groups: procedural justice, social identity, and behavioral engagement. Psychology Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  40. Tyler T, Blader S (2003) The group engagement model: procedural justice, social identity and cooperative behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Rev 7:349–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyler T, Lind A (1992) A relational model of authority in groups. In: Zanna MP (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 25. Academic, San Diego, pp 115–191Google Scholar
  42. Van den Bos K (2001) Uncertainty management: the influence of uncertainty salience on reactions to perceived procedural fairness. J Pers Soc Psychol 80:931–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA