Performance Audits and Performance Appraisals

  • Eric OtenyoEmail author
Living reference work entry


Introduction: A Historical and Comparative Perspective

Perhaps our colleagues, superiors, or subordinates all constantly rate us subconsciously. Yet, despite this inevitable tendency, a formal performance appraisal is not very well understood and often poorly managed in some well-respected organizations. Administration of performance appraisals can involve emotions and is one of the difficult aspects of managerial and supervisory responsibilities

Records show that formal appraisal systems existed as early as the third century A.D. At that time, the Chinese bureaucracy engaged in a form of performance appraisal practice in which an imperial rater evaluated the emperor’s official family members and servants on a nine-grade system based on his likes and dislikes. In Europe, formal appraisals began around 1800 in the cotton mills of Scotland. Then, workers were rated according to color tags, white for...


Human Resource Management Performance Appraisal Appraisal Process Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Appraisal System 
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© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA