Performance Audits and Performance Appraisals

  • Eric OtenyoEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_2455-1

Synonyms

Introduction: A Historical and Comparative Perspective

Perhaps our colleagues, superiors, or subordinates all constantly rate us subconsciously. Yet, despite this inevitable tendency, a formal performance appraisal is not very well understood and often poorly managed in some well-respected organizations. Administration of performance appraisals can involve emotions and is one of the difficult aspects of managerial and supervisory responsibilities

Records show that formal appraisal systems existed as early as the third century A.D. At that time, the Chinese bureaucracy engaged in a form of performance appraisal practice in which an imperial rater evaluated the emperor’s official family members and servants on a nine-grade system based on his likes and dislikes. In Europe, formal appraisals began around 1800 in the cotton mills of Scotland. Then, workers were rated according to color tags, white for...

Keywords

Human Resource Management Performance Appraisal Appraisal Process Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Appraisal System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ammons ND, Rodrigues A (1986) Performance practices for upper management in city government. Public Adm Rev 46(5):460–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey C, Fletcher C (2008) International performance management and appraisal: research perspectives. In: Harris MM (ed) Handbook of research in international human resource management. Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, pp 127–143Google Scholar
  3. Caliguiri P (2006) Performance measurement in a cross-cultural context. In: Bennett W Jr, Lance CE, Woehr DJ (eds) Performance management: current perspectives and future challenges. Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, pp 277–244Google Scholar
  4. Claus L, Briscoe D (2009) Employee performance management across borders. In: Sparrow P (ed) Handbook of international human resource management: integrating people, process, and context. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 220–250Google Scholar
  5. Deming WE (2000) Out of the crisis. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  6. Drucker P (1954) The practice of management. Harper and Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Gilbert, R.G., E.L. Hannan, and K. B. Lowe. 1998. Is smoking stigma clouding the objectivity of employee performance appraisal? Public Pers Manag 27(3)(Fall):285–300.Google Scholar
  8. Graves PJ 1982 Let’s put back appraisal back in performance appraisal: part I and II. Pers J 61(12):918–923Google Scholar
  9. Kellough EJ, Lu H (1993) The paradox of merit pay in the public sector: persistence of a problematic procedure. Rev Public Pers Manag 13:45–64Google Scholar
  10. Marcoulides G (1989) Performance appraisal: issues of validity. Perform Improv Q 2(2):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nalbandian J (1981) Performance appraisal: if only people were not Involved. Public Adm Rev 41:392–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Otenyo E (2012) Emerging behavioral challenges in organizations: performance evaluations of tattooed employees. Int J Acad Organ Behav Manag 2:117–140Google Scholar
  13. Samuel C (2010) Get rid of the performance review! Business Plus, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Schwab DP, Heneman HG, DeCotiis TA (1975) Behaviorally anchored rating scales: a review of the literature. Pers Psychol 28:549–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA