Scoliosis and Other Congenital Vertebral Anomalies

  • Mari L. Groves
  • Andrew C. Vivas
  • Amer F. Samdani
Living reference work entry


Congenital vertebral malformations with scoliosis result from embryological defects in vertebral element formation or segmentation. Etiologies include genetic causes as well as environmental factors. Patients have an increased incidence of associated anomalies that involve cardiac, genitourinary, and neurological systems. Clinical significance of curve progression depends on the age at diagnosis, location of the curve, and the nature of the underlying vertebral malformation. Surgical intervention may be appropriate in younger patients with thoracolumbar deformities and specific vertebral anomalies. Surgical options include convex hemiepiphysiodesis, instrumented fusion, osteotomies and vertebrectomies, as well as growing systems. This chapter will discuss diagnosis, workup, and treatment strategies for congenital scoliosis.


Congenital scoliosis Congenital vertebral malformation Failure of formation and segmentation Intraspinal anomalies Hemivertebrae Kyphoscoliosis Multisystemic congenital malformations Hemivertebrae excision Convex hemiepiphysiodesis Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) Growing rod systems 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mari L. Groves
    • 1
  • Andrew C. Vivas
    • 2
  • Amer F. Samdani
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryJohns Hopkins MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Shriners Hospitals for Children-PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dachling Pang
    • 1
  • Kyu-Chang Wang
    • 2
  • Dominic Thompson
    • 3
  1. 1.Davis; and Kaiser Permanente Hospitals of Northern CaliforniaUniversity of CaliforniaOaklandUnited States of America
  2. 2.Seoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Institute of Child HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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