Vascular and Cardiac Imaging Techniques and Their Applicability to Childhood Hypertension

  • Elaine M. UrbinaEmail author
Reference work entry


Hypertension-related cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of death in adults throughout the world. Subclinical measures of target organ damage (TOD) including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and elevated arterial stiffness can be measured in middle age and are predictive of later CV events. It has now been shown that high BP-related TOD abnormalities can be found in adolescents and young adults. In this review, we will discuss vascular and cardiac techniques to measure TOD in youth and the evidence linking blood pressure levels to abnormalities in structure and function of the CV system.


Pediatric Hypertension Left Ventricular Mass Carotid Artery Arterial Stiffness 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Preventive CardiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Karen M. Redwine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children's HospitalUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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