Cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Childhood Hypertension

  • Marc B. LandeEmail author
  • Juan C. Kupferman
  • Heather R. Adams
Reference work entry


Young hypertensive adults demonstrate decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with that of normotensive controls. There is emerging evidence that children with hypertension also manifest cognitive differences when compared to normotensive controls. Findings from studies of cognition in young adults have important implications for the study of cognition in hypertensive children. Recent studies suggest that both children with primary hypertension and children with hypertension secondary to chronic kidney disease have decreased performance on neurocognitive testing. Furthermore, children with primary hypertension have an increased prevalence of learning disabilities. Potential mechanisms include blunted cerebrovascular reactivity in hypertensive children. Ongoing studies of cognition in children with primary hypertension will further define the emerging hypertension-cognition link in youth.


Hypertension Neurocognition Cerebrovascular reactivity Brain Target-organ damage Chronic kidney disease 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc B. Lande
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juan C. Kupferman
    • 2
  • Heather R. Adams
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric NephrologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology and HypertensionMaimonides Infants and Children’s HospitalBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Division of Child NeurologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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