Sequelae of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

  • Donald J. WeaverJr.Email author
  • Mark M. Mitsnefes
Reference work entry


Data obtained from autopsy studies as well as noninvasive imaging techniques have demonstrated that end-organ changes occur in children and adolescents with mild to moderate elevations in blood pressure. These chronic elevations in blood pressure in pediatric patients induce changes in left atrial as well as left ventricular structure. The cardiac changes occur in parallel with alterations in the vascular system and subsequent development of atherosclerosis. Subclinical changes in renal function and microalbumin excretion are also noted in these patients. Mild to moderate elevations in blood pressure also impact cognitive functioning in children. The adverse effects of severe hypertension in children and adolescents on these organ systems are also well-known. Although additional longitudinal studies are required to elucidate the significance of these alterations, children with elevated blood pressures must be identified and treated appropriately in order to improve their long-term outcomes.


Hypertensive urgency Left ventricular hypertrophy Carotid intimal–medial thickness Endothelial dysfunction Microalbuminuria 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology and HypertensionLevine Children’s Hospital at Carolinas Medical CenterCharlotteUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Karen Redwine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children's HospitalUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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