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Hypertension in the Pregnant Teenager

  • Tracy E. HunleyEmail author
  • Neerav Desai
  • Deborah P. Jones
Reference work entry

Abstract

Hypertension occurs in approximately 10–20% of pregnancies and is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Most importantly, it results in preterm delivery and is associated with other conditions in the spectrum of placental ischemic disease such as intrauterine growth retardation and placental abruption. Chronic hypertension increases the risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Hypertension during pregnancy is also associated with increased future cardiovascular risk in the mother and her offspring. Topics to be discussed in this chapter include the classification of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, normal blood pressure patterns during pregnancy, the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, features unique to the pregnant adolescent, the epidemiology and outcome of hypertension during pregnancy, and treatment guidelines.

Keywords

Gestational hypertension Preeclampsia ABPM Preterm birth Adolescence Placental ischemia 

Abbreviations

2-ME

2-Methoxyestradiol

ABPM

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

ACEi

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors

ARB

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers

ANP

Atrial Natriuretic Protein

BP

Blood Pressure

BMI

Body Mass Index

COMT

Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase

CI

Confidence Interval

SBP

Systolic BP

DBP

Diastolic BP

sEng

Endoglin

GFR

Glomerular Filtration Rate

HELLP

Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets syndrome

HIF

Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1

MAP

Mean Arterial Pressure

OR

Odds Ratio

PlGF

Placental Growth Factor

sFlt1

Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1

VEGF

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy E. Hunley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neerav Desai
    • 2
  • Deborah P. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterPediatric NephrologyNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAdolescent and Young Adult HealthNashvilleUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA

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