Hypertension in the Pregnant Teenager

  • Tracy E. HunleyEmail author
  • Neerav Desai
  • Deborah P. Jones
Reference work entry


Hypertension occurs in approximately 10–20% of pregnancies and is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Most importantly, it results in preterm delivery and is associated with other conditions in the spectrum of placental ischemic disease such as intrauterine growth retardation and placental abruption. Chronic hypertension increases the risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Hypertension during pregnancy is also associated with increased future cardiovascular risk in the mother and her offspring. Topics to be discussed in this chapter include the classification of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, normal blood pressure patterns during pregnancy, the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, features unique to the pregnant adolescent, the epidemiology and outcome of hypertension during pregnancy, and treatment guidelines.


Gestational hypertension Preeclampsia ABPM Preterm birth Adolescence Placental ischemia 





Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring


Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors


Angiotensin Receptor Blockers


Atrial Natriuretic Protein


Blood Pressure


Body Mass Index


Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase


Confidence Interval


Systolic BP


Diastolic BP




Glomerular Filtration Rate


Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets syndrome


Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1


Mean Arterial Pressure


Odds Ratio


Placental Growth Factor


Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


  1. Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW, Henderson-Smart DJ (2007) Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD002252Google Scholar
  2. Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW (2014) Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD002252Google Scholar
  3. Amro FH, Moussa HN, Ashimi OA, Sibai BM (2016) Treatment options for hypertension in pregnancy and puerperium. Expert Opin Drug Saf 15:1–8Google Scholar
  4. Barnea ER, Maclusky NJ, Decherney AH, Naftolin F (1988) Catechol-o-methyl transferase activity in the human term placenta. Am J Perinatol 5:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton JR, Stanziano GJ, Jacques DL, Bergauer NK, Sibai BM (1995) Monitored outpatient management of mild gestational hypertension remote from term in teenage pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1865–1868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry C, Atta MG (2016) Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. World J Nephrol 5:418–428PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bilo G, Parati G (2016) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: a mandatory approach in high-risk pregnancy? J Hypertens 34:2140–2142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black AY, Fleming NA, Rome ES (2012) Pregnancy in adolescents. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 23(123–38):xiGoogle Scholar
  9. Brosens I, Pijnenborg R, Vercruysse L, Romero R (2011) The “great obstetrical syndromes” are associated with disorders of deep placentation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 204:193–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown RT, Brown JD (2006) Adolescent sexuality. Prim Care 33:373–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bullo M, Tschumi S, Bucher BS, Bianchetti MG, Simonetti GD (2012) Pregnancy outcome following exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists: a systematic review. Hypertension 60:444–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burwick RM, Feinberg BB (2013) Eculizumab for the treatment of preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Placenta 34:201–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Korzeniewski SJ, Cortez JM, Pappas A, Tarca AL, Chaemsaithong P, Dong Z, Yeo L, Hassan SS (2014) Plasma concentrations of angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors have prognostic value in women presenting with suspected preeclampsia to the obstetrical triage area: a prospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 27:132–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper WO, Hernandez-Diaz S, Arbogast PG, Dudley JA, Dyer S, Gideon PS, Hall K, Ray WA (2006) Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N Engl J Med 354:2443–2451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui Y, Wang W, Dong N, Lou J, Srinivasan DK, Cheng W, Huang X, Liu M, Fang C, Peng J, Chen S, Wu S, Liu Z, Dong L, Zhou Y, Wu Q (2012) Role of corin in trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling in pregnancy. Nature 484:246–250PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis EF, Lazdam M, Lewandowski AJ, Worton SA, Kelly B, Kenworthy Y, Adwani S, Wilkinson AR, Mccormick K, Sargent I, Redman C, Leeson P (2012) Cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults born to preeclamptic pregnancies: a systematic review. Pediatrics 129:e1552–e1561Google Scholar
  17. de Vienne CM, Creveuil C, Dreyfus M (2009) Does young maternal age increase the risk of adverse obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes: a cohort study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 147:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dechend R, Viedt C, Muller DN, Ugele B, Brandes RP, Wallukat G, Park JK, Janke J, Barta P, Theuer J, Fiebeler A, Homuth V, Dietz R, Haller H, Kreuzer J, Luft FC (2003) AT1 receptor agonistic antibodies from preeclamptic patients stimulate NADPH oxidase. Circulation 107:1632–1639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dekker G (2011) Hypertension. In: James D, Steer PJ, Weiner CP, Gonik B (eds) High risk pregnancy: management options. Elsevier, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  20. Duckitt K, Harrington D (2005) Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 330:565PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Durnwald C, Mercer B (2003) A prospective comparison of total protein/creatinine ratio versus 24-hour urine protein in women with suspected preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:848–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Easterling TR (2016) Post-control of hypertension in pregnancy study (CHIPS): what is the optimal strategy to manage hypertension during pregnancy? Hypertension 68:36–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Espinoza J, Kusanovic JP, Bahado-Singh R, Gervasi MT, Romero R, Lee W, Vaisbuch E, Mazaki-Tovi S, Mittal P, Gotsch F, Erez O, Gomez R, Yeo L, Hassan SS (2010) Should bilateral uterine artery notching be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia, small-for-gestational-age, and gestational hypertension? J Ultrasound Med 29:1103–1115PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Eure CR, Lindsay MK, Graves WL (2002) Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in young adolescent parturients in an inner-city hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:918–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Facemire CS, Nixon AB, Griffiths R, Hurwitz H, Coffman TM (2009) Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 controls blood pressure by regulating nitric oxide synthase expression. Hypertension 54:652–658PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Facts on American Teens’ Sexual and Reproductive Health (2012) Available from (Online)
  27. Finer LB, Henshaw SK (2006) Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 38:90–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaillard R, Steegers EA, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW (2011) Associations of maternal obesity with blood pressure and the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. The generation R study. J Hypertens 29:937–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Garovic VD (2012) The role of angiogenic factors in the prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. Hypertension 59:555–557PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Garovic VD, Bailey KR, Boerwinkle E, Hunt SC, Weder AB, Curb D, Mosley TH Jr, Wiste HJ, Turner ST (2010) Hypertension in pregnancy as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease later in life. J Hypertens 28:826–833PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Gavette L, Roberts J (1987) Use of mean arterial pressure (MAP-2) to predict pregnancy-induced hypertension in adolescents. J Nurse Midwifery 32:357–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilbert JS, Ryan MJ, Lamarca BB, Sedeek M, Murphy SR, Granger JP (2008) Pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia: linking placental ischemia with endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H541–H550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goulopoulou S, Davidge ST (2015) Molecular mechanisms of maternal vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia. Trends Mol Med 21:88–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gupta N, Kiran U, Bhal K (2008) Teenage pregnancies: obstetric characteristics and outcome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 137:165–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Guseh SH, Feinberg BB, Dawood HY, Yamamoto HS, Fichorova RN, Burwick RM (2015) Urinary excretion of C5b-9 is associated with the anti-angiogenic state in severe preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 73:437–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilton B, U. S. Deparmment of Health and Human Services et al (2011) C. F. D. C. A. P. National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. Births: final data for 2009. Natl Vital Stat Rep 60:116Google Scholar
  37. He H, Venema VJ, Gu X, Venema RC, Marrero MB, Caldwell RB (1999) Vascular endothelial growth factor signals endothelial cell production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin through flk-1/KDR activation of c-Src. J Biol Chem 274:25130–25135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. He Y, Xu B, Song D, Yu F, Chen Q, Zhao M (2016) Correlations between complement system’s activation factors and anti-angiogenesis factors in plasma of patients with early/late-onset severe preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 35:499–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hermida RC, Ayala DE (2002) Prognostic value of office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements in pregnancy. Hypertension 40:298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hermida RC, Ayala DE (2004) Prognostic value of ambulatory blood pressure measurements for the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2:375–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hernandez M, Hernandez I, Rodriguez F, Pertegal M, Bonacasa B, Salom MG, Quesada T, Fenoy F (2013) Endothelial dysfunction in gestational hypertension induced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. Exp Physiol 98:856–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Higgins JR, Walshe JJ, Halligan A, O'Brien E, Conroy R, Darling MR (1997) Can 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement predict the development of hypertension in primigravidae? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:356–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirashima C, Ohkuchi A, Takahashi K, Suzuki H, Yoshida M, Ohmaru T, Eguchi K, Ariga H, Matsubara S, Suzuki M (2011) Gestational hypertension as a subclinical preeclampsia in view of serum levels of angiogenesis-related factors. Hypertens Res 34:212–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hornig C, Barleon B, Ahmad S, Vuorela P, Ahmed A, Weich HA (2000) Release and complex formation of soluble VEGFR-1 from endothelial cells and biological fluids. Lab Invest 80:443–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Humphrey JR, Floyd RL (2012) Preconception health and healthcare environmental scan. Atlanta: CDCGoogle Scholar
  46. Kajantie E, Eriksson JG, Osmond C, Thornburg K, Barker DJ (2009) Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of stroke in the adult offspring: the Helsinki birth cohort study. Stroke 40:1176–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kanasaki K, Palmsten K, Sugimoto H, Ahmad S, Hamano Y, Xie L, Parry S, Augustin HG, Gattone VH, Folkman J, Strauss JF, KALLURI R (2008) Deficiency in catechol-O-methyltransferase and 2-methoxyoestradiol is associated with pre-eclampsia. Nature 453:1117–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Khalil A, Maiz N, Garcia-Mandujano R, Elkhouli M, Nicolaides KH (2015) Longitudinal changes in maternal corin and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide in women at risk of pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 45:190–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kost K, Heushaw S (2014) U.S. Teenage pregnancies, births and abortions: national and state trends and trends by race and ethnicity. New York: Guttmacher InstituteGoogle Scholar
  50. Kotchen JM, Kotchen TA, Cottrill CM, Guthrie GP Jr, Somes G (1979) Blood pressures of young mothers and their first children 3–6 years following hypertension during pregnancy. J Chronic Dis 32:653–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kyle PM, Clark SJ, Buckley D, Kissane J, Coats AJ, de Swiet M, Redman CW (1993) Second trimester ambulatory blood pressure in nulliparous pregnancy: a useful screening test for pre-eclampsia? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:914–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenders CM, Mcelrath TF, Scholl TO (2000) Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy. Curr Opin Pediatr 12:291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Levine RJ, Maynard SE, Qian C, Lim KH, England LJ, Yu KF, Schisterman EF, Thadhani R, Sachs BP, Epstein FH, Sibai BM, Sukhatme VP, Karumanchi SA (2004) Circulating angiogenic factors and the risk of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 350:672–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Levine RJ, Lam C, Qian C, Yu KF, Maynard SE, Sachs BP, Sibai BM, Epstein FH, Romero R, Thadhani R, Karumanchi SA (2006) Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 355:992–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lindheimer MD, Taler SJ, Cunningham FG (2010) Hypertension in pregnancy. J Am Soc Hypertens 4:68–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Macdonald-Wallis C, Lawlor DA, Fraser A, May M, Nelson SM, Tilling K (2012) Blood pressure change in normotensive, gestational hypertensive, preeclamptic, and essential hypertensive pregnancies. Hypertension 59:1241–1248PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Magee LA, Duley L (2003) Oral beta-blockers for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD002863Google Scholar
  58. Magee LA, von Dadelszen P, Rey E, Ross S, Asztalos E, Murphy KE, Menzies J, Sanchez J, Singer J, Gafni A, Gruslin A, Helewa M, Hutton E, Lee SK, Lee T, Logan AG, Ganzevoort W, Welch R, Thornton JG, Moutquin JM (2015) Less-tight versus tight control of hypertension in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 372:407–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Magee LA, von Dadelszen P, Singer J, Lee T, Rey E, Ross S, Asztalos E, Murphy KE, Menzies J, Sanchez J, Gafni A, Helewa M, Hutton E, Koren G, Lee SK, Logan AG, Ganzevoort W, Welch R, Thornton JG, Moutquin JM (2016) The CHIPS randomized controlled trial (Control of hypertension in pregnancy study): is severe hypertension just an elevated blood pressure? Hypertension 68:1153–1159PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Makris A, Thornton C, Thompson J, Thomson S, Martin R, Ogle R, Waugh R, Mckenzie P, Kirwan P, Hennessy A (2007) Uteroplacental ischemia results in proteinuric hypertension and elevated sFLT-1. Kidney Int 71:977–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Maynard SE, Min JY, Merchan J, Lim KH, Li J, Mondal S, Libermann TA, Morgan JP, Sellke FW, Stillman IE, Epstein FH, Sukhatme VP, Karumanchi SA (2003) Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia. J Clin Invest 111:649–658PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Mcdonald SD, Han Z, Walsh MW, Gerstein HC, Devereaux PJ (2010) Kidney disease after preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 55:1026–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Moser M, Brown CM, Rose CH, Garovic VD (2012) Hypertension in pregnancy: is it time for a new approach to treatment? J Hypertens 30:1092–1100PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Murphy MS, Bytautiene E, Saade G, Smith GN (2015) Alterations to the maternal circulating proteome after preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(853):e1–e9Google Scholar
  65. Nevo O, Soleymanlou N, Wu Y, Xu J, Kingdom J, Many A, Zamudio S, Caniggia I (2006) Increased expression of sFlt-1 in in vivo and in vitro models of human placental hypoxia is mediated by HIF-1. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R1085–R1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Noori M, Donald AE, Angelakopoulou A, Hingorani AD, Williams DJ (2010) Prospective study of placental angiogenic factors and maternal vascular function before and after preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Circulation 122:478–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Paranjothy S, Broughton H, Adappa R, Fone D (2009) Teenage pregnancy: who suffers? Arch Dis Child 94:239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pare E, Parry S, Mcelrath TF, Pucci D, Newton A, Lim KH (2014) Clinical risk factors for preeclampsia in the 21st century. Obstet Gynecol 124:763–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Patel TV, Morgan JA, Demetri GD, George S, Maki RG, Quigley M, Humphreys BD (2008) A preeclampsia-like syndrome characterized by reversible hypertension and proteinuria induced by the multitargeted kinase inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib. J Natl Cancer Inst 100:282–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Penning M, Chua JS, van Kooten C, Zandbergen M, Buurma A, Schutte J, Bruijn JA, Khankin EV, Bloemenkamp K, Karumanchi SA, Baelde H (2015) Classical complement pathway activation in the kidneys of women with preeclampsia. Hypertension 66:117–125PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Polifka JE (2012) Is there an embryopathy associated with first-trimester exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists? A critical review of the evidence. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 94:576–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Powe CE, Levine RJ, Karumanchi SA (2011) Preeclampsia, a disease of the maternal endothelium: the role of antiangiogenic factors and implications for later cardiovascular disease. Circulation 123:2856–2869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pruthi D, Khankin EV, Blanton RM, Aronovitz M, Burke SD, Mccurley A, Karumanchi SA, Jaffe IZ (2015) Exposure to experimental preeclampsia in mice enhances the vascular response to future injury. Hypertension 65:863–870PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Quinlivan JA, Evans SF (2004) Teenage antenatal clinics may reduce the rate of preterm birth: a prospective study. BJOG 111:571–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Quinlivan JA, Evans SF (2005) Impact of domestic violence and drug abuse in pregnancy on maternal attachment and infant temperament in teenage mothers in the setting of best clinical practice. Arch Womens Ment Health 8:191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Regal JF, Gilbert JS, Burwick RM (2015) The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mol Immunol 67:56–70PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Reuter DG, Law Y, Levy WC, Seslar SP, Zierler RE, Ferguson M, Chattra J, Mcquinn T, Liu LL, Terry M, Coffey PS, Dimer JA, Hanevold C, Flynn JT, Stapleton FB (2016) Can preeclampsia be considered a renal compartment syndrome? A hypothesis and analysis of the literature. J Am Soc Hypertens 10:891–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Roberts JM, August PA, Bakris G, Barton JR, Bernstein IM, Druzin M, Gaiser RR, Granger JP, Jeyabalan A, Johnson DD, Karumanchi S, Lindheimer M, Owens MY, Saade GR, Sibai BM, Spong CY, Tsigas E, Joseph GF, O’reilly N, Politzer A, Son S, Ngaiza K (2013) Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American college of obstetricians and gynecologists’ task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 122:1122–1131Google Scholar
  79. Roten LT, Fenstad MH, Forsmo S, Johnson MP, Moses EK, Austgulen R, Skorpen F (2011) A low COMT activity haplotype is associated with recurrent preeclampsia in a Norwegian population cohort (HUNT2). Mol Hum Reprod 17:439–446PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Salahuddin S, Lee Y, Vadnais M, Sachs BP, Karumanchi SA, Lim KH (2007) Diagnostic utility of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin in hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197(28):e1–e6Google Scholar
  81. Salazar MR, Espeche WG, Leiva Sisnieguez BC, Balbin E, Leiva Sisnieguez CE, Stavile RN, March CE, Grassi F, Santillan C, Cor S, Carbajal HA (2016) Significance of masked and nocturnal hypertension in normotensive women coursing a high-risk pregnancy. J Hypertens 34:2248–2252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sandrim VC, Palei AC, Metzger IF, Gomes VA, Cavalli RC, Tanus-Santos JE (2008) Nitric oxide formation is inversely related to serum levels of antiangiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endogline in preeclampsia. Hypertension 52:402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Seely EW, Ecker J (2011) Clinical practice. Chronic hypertension in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 365:439–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sibai BM (1991) Medical disorders in pregnancy, including hypertensive diseases. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 3:28–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sibai BM (2002) Chronic hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 100:369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sibai BM (2007) Caring for women with hypertension in pregnancy. JAMA 298:1566–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sibai BM, Ewell M, Levine RJ, Klebanoff MA, Esterlitz J, Catalano PM, Goldenberg RL, Joffe G (1997) Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. The Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) study group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:1003–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sibai BM, Lindheimer M, Hauth J, Caritis S, Vandorsten P, klebanoff M, Macpherson C, Landon M, Miodovnik M, Paul R, Meis P, Dombrowski M (1998) Risk factors for preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and adverse neonatal outcomes among women with chronic hypertension. National institute of child health and human development network of maternal-fetal medicine units. N Engl J Med 339:667–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Siddiqui AH, Irani RA, Blackwell SC, Ramin SM, Kellems RE, Xia Y (2010) Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibody is highly prevalent in preeclampsia: correlation with disease severity. Hypertension 55:386–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Siddiqui AH, Irani RA, Zhang Y, Dai Y, Blackwell SC, Ramin SM, Kellems RE, Xia Y (2011) Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 attenuates autoantibody-induced features of pre-eclampsia in pregnant mice. Am J Hypertens 24:606–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Steegers EA, von Dadelszen P, Duvekot JJ, Pijnenborg R (2010) Pre-eclampsia. Lancet 376:631–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stepanian A, Alcais A, de Prost D, Tsatsaris V, Dreyfus M, Treluyer JM, Mandelbrot L (2014) Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women. PLoS One 9:e113176PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Strevens H, Wide-Swensson D, Hansen A, Horn T, Ingemarsson I, Larsen S, Willner J, Olsen S (2003) Glomerular endotheliosis in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. BJOG 110:831–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sukalich S, Mingione MJ, Glantz JC (2006) Obstetric outcomes in overweight and obese adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:851–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Takahashi H, Hattori S, Iwamatsu A, Takizawa H, Shibuya M (2004) A novel snake venom vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predominantly induces vascular permeability through preferential signaling via VEGF receptor-1. J Biol Chem 279:46304–46314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tangren JS, Powe CE, Ankers E, Ecker J, Bramham K, Hladunewich MA, Karumanchi SA, Thadhani R (2016). Pregnancy outcomes after clinical recovery from AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol [Epub ahead-of print]Google Scholar
  97. Thadhani R, Kisner T, Hagmann H, Bossung V, Noack S, Schaarschmidt W, Jank A, Kribs A, Cornely OA, Kreyssig C, Hemphill L, Rigby AC, Khedkar S, Lindner TH, Mallmann P, Stepan H, Karumanchi SA, Benzing T (2011) Pilot study of extracorporeal removal of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in preeclampsia. Circulation 124:940–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Thadhani R, Hagmann H, Schaarschmidt W, Roth B, Cingoez T, Karumanchi SA, Wenger J, Lucchesi KJ, Tamez H, Lindner T, Fridman A, Thome U, Kribs A, Danner M, Hamacher S, Mallmann P, Stepan H, Benzing T (2016) Removal of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 by dextran sulfate apheresis in preeclampsia. J Am Soc Nephrol 27:903–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Treffers PE, Olukoya AA, Ferguson BJ, Liljestrand J (2001) Care for adolescent pregnancy and childbirth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 75:111–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Vaught AJ, Gavriilaki E, Hueppchen N, Blakemore K, Yuan X, Seifert SM, York S, Brodsky RA (2016) Direct evidence of complement activation in HELLP syndrome: a link to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Exp Hematol 44:390–398PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Venkatesha S, Toporsian M, Lam C, Hanai J, Mammoto T, Kim YM, Bdolah Y, Lim KH, Yuan HT, Libermann TA, Stillman IE, Roberts D, D'Amore PA, Epstein FH, Sellke FW, Romero R, Sukhatme VP, Letarte M, Karumanchi SA (2006) Soluble endoglin contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Nat Med 12:642–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vikse BE, Irgens LM, Leivestad T, Skjaerven R, Iversen BM (2008) Preeclampsia and the risk of end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 359:800–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. von Dadelszen P, Ornstein MP, Bull SB, Logan AG, Koren G, Magee LA (2000) Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. Lancet 355:87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wallukat G, Homuth V, Fischer T, Lindschau C, Horstkamp B, Jupner A, Baur E, Nissen E, Vetter K, Neichel D, Dudenhausen JW, Haller H, Luft FC (1999) Patients with preeclampsia develop agonistic autoantibodies against the angiotensin AT1 receptor. J Clin Invest 103:945–952PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang Y, Beydoun MA (2007) The obesity epidemic in the United States – gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 29:6–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang IK, Muo CH, Chang YC, Liang CC, Chang CT, Lin SY, Yen TH, Chuang FR, Chen PC, Huang CC, Wen CP, Sung FC, Morisky DE (2013) Association between hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and end-stage renal disease: a population-based study. CMAJ 185:207–213PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Zeisler H, Llurba E, Chantraine F, Vatish M, Staff AC, Sennstrom M, Olovsson M, Brennecke SP, Stepan H, Allegranza D, Dilba P, Schoedl M, Hund M, Verlohren S (2016) Predictive value of the sFlt-1:PlGF ratio in women with suspected preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 374:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhou CC, Zhang Y, Irani RA, Zhang H, Mi T, Popek EJ, Hicks MJ, Ramin SM, Kellems RE, Xia Y (2008) Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies induce pre-eclampsia in pregnant mice. Nat Med 14:855–862PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhou CC, Irani RA, Zhang Y, Blackwell SC, Mi T, Wen J, Shelat H, Geng YJ, Ramin SM, Kellems RE, Xia Y (2010) Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibody-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha induction contributes to increased soluble endoglin production in preeclampsia. Circulation 121:436–444PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhou CC, Irani RA, Dai Y, Blackwell SC, Hicks MJ, Ramin SM, Kellems RE, Xia Y (2011) Autoantibody-mediated IL-6-dependent endothelin-1 elevation underlies pathogenesis in a mouse model of preeclampsia. J Immunol 186:6024–6034PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy E. Hunley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neerav Desai
    • 2
  • Deborah P. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterPediatric NephrologyNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAdolescent and Young Adult HealthNashvilleUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations