Neonatal and Infant Hypertension

  • Janis M. DionneEmail author
Reference work entry


Neonatal hypertension as a clinical entity has been recognized since the 1970s, and yet we still do not have a complete understanding of the physiologic blood pressure changes occurring over the first year of life. Blood pressure changes rapidly in the newborn period during hemodynamic adaptation to the extrauterine environment, especially in preterm neonates. Measurement methods have evolved to less-invasive blood pressure monitoring, but there are still improvements needed in measurement techniques. The incidence of neonatal hypertension does not seem to be increasing despite increasing complexity of the population due to technologic advances. Risk factors or causes of hypertension can be found in most infants but treatment can be challenging. Most infant hypertension resolves over time although premature and low birth weight infants are at risk of future hypertension. This chapter will describe proper measurement of infant blood pressure, illustrate the expected changes in blood pressure during the first year of life, as well as explore evaluation, management, and follow-up of neonatal and infant hypertension.


Neonatal blood pressure Neonatal hypertension Infant hypertension Blood pressure measurement Hypertension risk factors Hypertension management 



Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring


Angiotensin-converting enzyme


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation




Mean arterial pressure


Neonatal intensive care unit


Patent ductus arteriosus


Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system


Renal vein thrombosis


Small for gestational age


Umbilical artery catheter


Very low birth weight


  1. (4th Report) National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (2004) The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 114:555–576Google Scholar
  2. Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitnen K et al (2008) Evidence of infant blood pressure programming by maternal nutrition during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study. J Pediatr 152:79–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdulhannan P, Stahlschmidt J, Subramaniam R (2011) Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease and hypertension: clinical and pathological correlation. J Pediatr Urol 7:566–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abitbol CL, Chandar J, Rodriguez MM et al (2009) Obesity and preterm birth: additive risks in the progression of kidney disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol 24:1363–1370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Abman SH, Warady BA, Lum GM, Koops BL (1984) Systemic hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 104(6):928–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Adelman RD (1978) Neonatal hypertension. Pediatr Clin North Am 25(1):99–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson AH, Warady BA, Daily DK et al (1993) Systemic hypertension in infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia: associated clinical factors. Am J Perinatol 10(3):190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrington KJ (2010) Umbilical artery catheters in the newborn: effects of position of the catheter tip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Issue 1: pp 1–20. Art. No.: CD000505Google Scholar
  9. Bayrakci US, Schaefer F, Duzova A et al (2007) Abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation in children born preterm. J Pediatr 151:399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker JA, Short BL, Martin GR (1998) Cardiovascular complications adversely affect survival during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Crit Care Med 26:1582–1586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Been JV, Kornelisse RF, Rours IG et al (2009) Early postnatal blood pressure in preterm infants: effects of chorioamnionitis and timing of antenatal steroids. Pediatr Res 66:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Belfort MB, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards J (2007) Size at birth, infant growth, and blood pressure at 3 years of age. J Pediatr 151(6):670––674PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Belfort MB, Martin CR, Smith VC et al (2010) Infant weight gain and school-age blood pressure and cognition in former preterm infants. Pediatrics 125:e1419–e1426PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Blowey DL, Duda PJ, Stokes P, Hall M (2011) Incidence and treatment of hypertension in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Am Soc Hypertens 5(6):478–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boedy RF, Goldberg AK, Howell CG et al (1990) Incidence of hypertension in infants on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg 25(2):258–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brenner BM, Garcia DL, Anderson S (1988) Glomeruli and blood pressure: less of one, more the other? Am J Hypertens 1:335–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchi KF, Siegler RL (1986) Hypertension in the first month of life. J Hypertens 4:525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen M, Brown DR, Myers MM (1998) Cardiovascular responses to feeding in the neonate during the first four days of life. Early Hum Dev 50:273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen G, Jeffery H, Lagercrantz H, Katz-Salamon M (2010) Long-term reprogramming of cardiovascular function in infants of active smokers. Hypertension 55:722–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Committee on Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics (1993) Routine evaluation of blood pressure, hematocrit and glucose in newborns. Pediatrics 92:474–476Google Scholar
  21. Crapanzano MS, Strong WB, Newman IR et al (1996) Calf blood pressure: clinical implications and correlations with arm blood pressure in infants and young children. Pediatrics 97:220–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dagle JM, Fisher TJ, Haynes SE et al (2011) Cytochrome p450 (CYP2D6) genotype is associated with elevated systolic blood pressure in preterm infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr 159:104–109PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Dannevig I, Dale HC, Liestol K, Lindemann R (2005) Blood pressure in the neonate: three non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure monitors compared with invasively measure blood pressure. Acta Paediatr 94:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. de Jong F, Monuteaux MC, van Elburg RM et al (2012) Systematic review and meta-analysis of preterm birth and later systolic blood pressure. Hypertension 59:226–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Deal JE, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ (1992) Management of hypertensive emergencies. Arch Dis Child 67:1089–1092PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Dionne JM, Abitbol CL, Flynn JT (2012) Hypertension in infancy: diagnosis, management and outcome. Pediatr Nephrol 27:17–32. Erratum in: Pediatr Nephrol 27:159–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doyle LW, Ehrenkranz RA, Halliday HL (2014a) Early (< 8 days) postnatal corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Issue 5. Art. No.: CD001146Google Scholar
  28. Doyle LW, Ehrenkranz RA, Halliday HL (2014b) Late (> 7 days) postnatal corticosteroids for chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Issue 5. Art. No.: CD001145Google Scholar
  29. Duncan AF, Rosenfeld CR, Morgan JS et al (2008) Interrater reliability and effect of state on blood pressure measurements in infants 1 to 3 years of age. Pediatrics 122:e590–e594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fabricius-Bjerre S, Jensen RB, Faerch K et al (2011) Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence. PLoS One 6(6):e20595PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fick GM, Johnson AM, Strain JD (1993) Characteristics of very early onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:1863–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Flynn JT, Pasko DA (2000) Calcium channel blockers: pharmacology and place in therapy of pediatric hypertension. Pediatr Nephrol 15:302–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Flynn JT, Warnick SJ (2002) Isradipine treatment of hypertension in children: a single-center experience. Pediatr Nephrol 17:748–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Flynn JT, Mottes TA, Brophy PD et al (2001) Intravenous nicardipine for treatment of severe hypertension in children. J Pediatr 139(1):38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman AL, Hustead VA (1987) Hypertension in babies following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Nephrol 1:30–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Geerts CG, Grobbee DE, van der Ent CK et al (2007) Tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers and blood pressure in their newborns: results from the wheezing illnesses study Leidsche Rijn birth cohort. Hypertension 50:572–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Georgieff MK, Mills MM, Gomez-Marin O, Sinaiko AR (1996) Rate of change of blood pressure in premature and full term infants from birth to 4 months. Pediatr Nephrol 10:152–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilboa N, Urizar RE (1983) Severe hypertension in the newborn after pyeloplasty of hydronephrotic kidney. Urology 22(2):179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gillman MW, Rich-Edwards JW, Rifas-Shiman SL et al (2004) Maternal age and other predictors of newborn blood pressure. J Pediatr 144:240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guay-Woodford LM, Desmond RA (2003) Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: the clinical experience in North America. Pediatrics 111:1072–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gupta JM, Scopes JW (1965) Observations on blood pressure in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 40:637–644PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Halliday HL, Ehrenkranz RA, Doyle LW (2003) Moderately early (7–14 days) postnatal corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001144Google Scholar
  43. Heggen JA, Fortenberry JD, Tanner AJ et al (2004) Systemic hypertension associated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric respiratory failure. J Pediatr Surg 39:1626–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Heida KY, Zeeman GG, Van Veen TR, Hulzebos CV (2012) Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia. Early Hum Dev 88:503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hemachandra AH, Klebanoff MA, Duggan AK (2006) The association between intrauterine growth restriction in the full-term infant and high blood pressure at age 7 years: results from the collaborative perinatal project. Int J Epidemiol 35:871–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hovi T, Andersson S, Raikkonen K et al (2010) Ambulatory blood pressure in young adults with very low birth weight. J Pediatr 156:54–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Howe LD, Chaturvedi N, Lawlor DA et al (2014) Rapid increases in infant adiposity and overweight/ obesity in childhood are associated with higher central and brachial blood pressure in early adulthood. J Hypertens 32:1789–1796PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Huh SY, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman KP et al (2005) Maternal protein intake is not associated with infant blood pressure. Int J Epidemiol 34:378–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ingelfinger JR (1982) Hypertension in the first year of life. In: Ingelfinger JR (ed) Pediatric hypertension. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 229–240Google Scholar
  50. Jones A, Charakida M, Falaschetti E (2012) Adipose and height growth through childhood and blood pressure status in a large prospective cohort study. Hypertension 59:919–925PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Joppich R, Scherer B, Weber PC (1979) Renal prostaglandins: relationship to the development of blood pressure and concentrating capacity in per-term and full-term healthy infants. Eur J Pediatr 132:253–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kasaragod AB, Lucia MS, Lum GM et al (1999) Solitary renal myofibromatosis: an unusual cause of infantile hypertension. Pediatrics 103(5):e66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Keijzer-Veen MG, Finken MJ, Nauta J et al (2005) Is blood pressure increased 19 years after intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth? A prospective follow-up study in the Netherlands. Pediatrics 116:725–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kent AL, Kecskes Z, Shadbolt V, Falk MC (2007a) Normative blood pressure data in the early neonatal period. Pediatr Nephrol 22:1335–1341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kent AL, Kecskes Z, Shadbolt B, Falk MC (2007b) Blood pressure in the first year of life in healthy infants born at term. Pediatr Nephrol 22:1743–1749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kent AL, Meskell S, Falk MC, Shadbolt B (2009a) Normative blood pressure data in non-ventilated premature neonates from 28–36 weeks gestation. Pediatr Nephrol 24:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kent AL, Shadbolt B, Hu E et al (2009b) Do maternal- or pregnancy-associated disease states affect blood pressure in the early neonatal period? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 49(4):364–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kimble KJ, Darnall RA, Yelderman M et al (1981) An automated oscillometric technique for estimating mean arterial pressure in critically ill newborns. Anesthesiology 54:423–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kist-van Halthe JE, van Zwieten PH, Schell-Feith EA et al (2007) Is Nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates harmful for long-term blood pressure and renal function? Pediatrics 119(3):468–475Google Scholar
  60. Kosch A, Kuwertz-Broking E, Heller C et al (2004) Renal venous thrombosis in neonates: prothrombotic risk factors and long-term follow-up. Blood 104:1356–1360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kruger C, Rauh M, Dorr HG (1998) Immunoreactive renin concentrations in healthy children from birth to adolescence. Clin Chim Acta 274:15–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lacoste M, Cai Y, Guicharnaud L et al (2006) Renal tubular dysgenesis, a not uncommon autosomal recessive disorder leading to oligohydramnios: role of the renin-angiotensin system. J Am Soc Nephrol 17:2253–2263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lalan S, Blowey D (2014) Comparison between oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure measurements in ill preterm and full-term neonates. J Am Soc Hypertens 8(1):36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lande MB, Kaczorowski JM, Aunger P et al (2003) Elevated blood pressure and decreased cognitive function among school-age children and adolescents in the United States. J Pediatr 143:720–724Google Scholar
  65. Lanzarini VV, Furusawa EA, Sadeck L et al (2006) Neonatal arterial hypertension in nephro-urological malformations in a tertiary care hospital. J Hum Hypertens 20:679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lau KK, Stoffman JM, Williams S et al (2007) Neonatal renal vein thrombosis: review of the English-language literature between 1992 and 2006. Pediatrics 120(5):e1278–e1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Law CM, Shiell AW, Newsome CA et al (2002) Fetal, infant, and childhood growth and adult blood pressure. Circulation 105:1088–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. LeFlore JL, Engle WD, Rosenfeld R (2000) Determinants of blood pressure in very low birth weight neonates: lack of effect of antenatal steroids. Early Hum Dev 59:37–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lopez-Herce J, Dorao P, de la Oliva P et al (1989) Dosage of nifedipine in hypertensive crises of infants and children. Eur J Pediatr 149:136–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Louw J, Brown S, Thewissen L et al (2013) Neonatal circulatory failure due to acute hypertensive crisis: clinical and echocardiographic clues. Cardiovasc J Afr 24:73–77PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Lurbe E, Garcia-Vincent C, Torro I et al (2007) First-year blood pressure increase steepest in low birth weight newborns. J Hypertens 25:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lurbe E, Garcia-Vincent C, Torro MI et al (2014) Associations of birth weight and postnatal weight gain with cardiometabolic risk parameters at 5 years of age. Hypertension 63:1326–1332PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mackenzie HS, Lawler EV, Brenner BM (1996) Congenital oligonephropathy: the fetal flaw in essential hypertension? Kidney Int 49(Supp55):S30–S34Google Scholar
  74. Menser MA, Dorman DC, Reye RD, Reid RR (1966) Renal-artery stenosis in the rubella syndrome. Lancet 287(7441):790–792Google Scholar
  75. Mercanti I, Boivin A, Wo B et al (2011) Blood pressures in newborns with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J Perinatol 31:417–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Meyer S, Sander J, Graber S et al (2010) Agreement of invasive versus non-invasive blood pressure in preterm neonates is not dependent on birth weight or gestational age. J Paediatr Child Health 46:249–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mildenhall L, Battin M, Bevan C et al (2009) Repeat prenatal corticosteroid doses do not alter neonatal blood pressure or myocardial thickness: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 123:e646–e652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Milner LS, Heitner R, Thomson PD (1984) Hypertension as the major problem of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. J Pediatr 105:934–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Milou C, Debuche-Benouachkou V, Semana DS et al (2000) Intravenous nicardipine as a first-line antihypertensive drug in neonates. Intensive Care Med 26:956–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Miyashita Y, Peterson D, Rees JM, Flynn JT (2010) Isradipine for treatment of acute hypertension in hospitalized children and adolescents. J Clin Hypertens 12:850–855Google Scholar
  81. Munoz AI, Baralt JF, Melendez MT (1977) Arterial hypertension in infants with hydronephrosis. Am J Dis Child 131:38–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Murki S, Deshbhatla SK, Sharma D et al (2014) Congenital ductus arteriosus aneurysm: an unusual cause of transient neonatal hypertension. BMJ Case RepGoogle Scholar
  83. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children (1987) Report of the second task force on blood pressure control in children – 1987. National Institutes of HealthGoogle Scholar
  84. Neal WA, Reynolds JW, Jarvis CW, Williams HJ (1972) Umbilical artery catheterization: demonstration of arterial thrombosis by aortography. Pediatrics 46:6–13Google Scholar
  85. Nwankwo MU, Lorenz JM, Gardiner JC (1997) A standard protocol for blood pressure measurement in the newborn. Pediatrics 99:E10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Shea J, Dempsey EM (2009) A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns. Am J Perinatol 26(2):113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. O’Sullivan JJ, Derrick G, Darnell R (2002) Prevalence of hypertension in children after early repair of coarctation of the aorta: a cohort study using casual and 24 hour blood pressure measurement. Heart 88:163–166PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Park MK, Menard SM (1987) Accuracy of blood pressure measurement by the Dinamap monitor in infants and children. Pediatrics 79:907–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pejovic B, Peco-Antic A, Marinkovic-Eric J (2007) Blood pressure in non-critically ill preterm and full-term neonates. Pediatr Nephrol 22:249–257PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Pergantou H, Avgerti M, Komitopoulou A et al (2014) Venous thromboembolism at uncommon sites in neonates and children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 36:624–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Perlman JM, Volpe JJ (1989) Neurologic complications of captopril treatment of neonatal hypertension. Pediatrics 83:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Peterson AL, Frommelt PC, Mussatto K (2006) Presentation and echocardiographic markers of neonatal hypertensive cardiomyopathy. Pediatrics 118:e782–e785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ribeiro MA, Fiori HH, Luz JH et al (2011) Comparison of noninvasive techniques to measure blood pressure in newborns. J Pediatr (Rio J) 87(1):57–72Google Scholar
  94. Richer CH, Hornych H, Amiel-Tison C et al (1977) Plasma renin activity and its postnatal development in preterm infants. Biol Neonate 31:301–304Google Scholar
  95. Rodriguez MM, Gomez AH, Abitbol CL et al (2004) Histomorphometric analysis of postnatal glomerulogenesis in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Dev Pathol 7:17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Roth CG, Spottswood SE, Chan JC, Roth KS (2003) Evaluation of the hypertensive infant: a rational approach to diagnosis. Radiol Clin North Am 41:931–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Roy S, Dillon MJ, Trompeter RS, Barratt TM (1997) Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: long-term outcome of neonatal survivors. Pediatr Nephrol 11:302–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sadoh WE, Ibhanesebhor SE (2010) Predictors of newborn systolic blood pressure. West Afr J Med 29(2):86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sahu R, Pannu H, Yu R et al (2013) Systemic hypertension requiring treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr 163:84–88PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Sarici SU, Alpay F, Okutan V, Gokcay E (2000) Is a standard protocol necessary for oscillometric blood pressure measurement in term newborns? Biol Neonate 77:212–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Satoh M, Inoue R, Tada H et al (2016) Reference values and associated factors for Japanese newborns’ blood pressure and pulse rate: the babies’ and their parents’ longitudinal observation in Suzuki Memorial Hospital on intrauterine period (BOSHI) study. J Hypertens 34:1578–1585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sedaghat N, Ellwood D, Shadbolt V et al (2008) The effect of mode of delivery and anesthesia on neonatal blood pressure. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 48:172–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Seibert JJ, Taylor BJ, Williamson SL et al (1987) Sonographic detection of neonatal umbilical-artery thrombosis: clinical correlation. Am J Roentgenol 148:965–968Google Scholar
  104. Seliem WA, Falk MC, Shadbolt B, Kent AL (2007) Antenatal and postnatal risk factors for neonatal hypertension and infant follow-up. Pediatr Nephrol 22:2081–2087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sell LL, Cullen ML, Lerner GR et al (1987) Hypertension during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: cause, effect, and management. Surgery 102:724–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Shah AB, Hashmi SS, Sahulee R et al (2015) Characteristics of systemic hypertension in preterm children. J Clin Hypertens 17:364–370Google Scholar
  107. Sharma M, Kupferman JC, Brosgol Y et al (2010) The effects of hypertension on the paediatric brain: a justifiable concern. Lancet Neurol 9:933–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sheftel DN, Hustead V, Friedman A (1983) Hypertension screening in the follow-up of premature infants. Pediatrics 71:763–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Singh HP, Hurley RM, Myers TF (1992) Neonatal hypertension: incidence and risk factors. Am J Hypertens 5:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Skalina ME, Kliegman RM, Fanaroff AA (1986) Epidemiology and management of severe symptomatic neonatal hypertension. Am J Perinatol 3(3):235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith Maia MM, Cortex TM, Parga JR et al (2004) Evolution aspects of children and adolescents with surgically corrected aortic coarctation: clinical, echocardiographic, and magnetic resonance image analysis or 113 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:712–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Stark MJ, Wright IM, Clifton VL (2009) Sex-specific alterations in placental 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity and early postnatal clinical course following antenatal betamethasone. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297:R510–R514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Strambi M, Messa G, Berni S et al (2012) Basal and post-ischemic vascular compliance in children/adolescents born small for gestational age. Pediatr Nephrol 27:1541–1546PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Tabbutt S, Nicolson SC, Adamson PC et al (2008) The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of esmolol for blood pressure control immediately after repair of coarctation of the aorta in infants and children: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 138:321–328Google Scholar
  115. Takci S, Yigit S, Korkmaz A, Yurdakok M (2012) Comparison between oscillometric and invasive blood pressure measurements in critically ill premature infants. Acta Paediatr 101:132–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thomas CA, Moffett BS, Wagner JL et al (2011) Safety and efficacy of intravenous labetalol for hypertensive crisis in infants and small children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:28–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Thoresen M, Cowan F (1992) Dinamap blood pressure measurements in the newborn: how many – what effects? Acta Paediatr 81:272–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tokunaka S, Takamura T, Osanai H (1987) Severe hypertension in infant with unilateral hypoplastic kidney. Urology 29(6):618–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Van Rossem L, Rifas-Shiman SL, Melly SJ et al (2015) Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure. Environ Health Perspect 123:353–359PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Vesoulis ZA, El Ters NM, Wallendorf M, Mathur AM (2016) Empirical estimation of the normative blood pressure in infants <28 weeks gestation using a massive data approach. J Perinatol 36:291–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vo NJ, Hammelman BD, Racadio JM et al (2006) Anatomic distribution of renal artery stenosis in children: implications for imaging. Pediatr Radiol 36:1032–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wells TG, Bunchman TE, Kearns GL (1990) Treatment of neonatal hypertension with enalaprilat. J Pediatr 117(4):664–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wiest DB, Garner SS, Uber WE, Sade RM (1998) Esmolol for the management of pediatric hypertension after cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115:890–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wolfenstetter A, Simonetti GD, Poschl J (2012) Altered cardiovascular rhythmicity in children born small for gestational age. Hypertension 60:865–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Xiao N, Tandon A, Goldstein S et al (2013) Cardiogenic shock as the initial presentation of neonatal systemic hypertension. J Neonatal Perinatal Med 6:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Yapıcıoğlu H, Özlü F, Sertdemir Y (2015) Are vital signs indicative for bacteremia in newborns? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 28(18):2244–2249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zamecznik A, Niewiadomska-Jarosik K, Wosiak A et al (2014) Intra-uterine growth restriction as a risk factor for hypertension in children six to 10 years old. Cardiovasc J Afr 25:73–77PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Zubrow AB, Hulman S, Kushner H, Falkner B (1995) Determinants of blood pressure in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units: a prospective multicenter study. J Perinatol 15(6):470–479Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of British Columbia, BC Children’s HospitalVancouverCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations