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Neonatal and Infant Hypertension

  • Janis M. DionneEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Neonatal hypertension as a clinical entity has been recognized since the 1970s, and yet we still do not have a complete understanding of the physiologic blood pressure changes occurring over the first year of life. Blood pressure changes rapidly in the newborn period during hemodynamic adaptation to the extrauterine environment, especially in preterm neonates. Measurement methods have evolved to less-invasive blood pressure monitoring, but there are still improvements needed in measurement techniques. The incidence of neonatal hypertension does not seem to be increasing despite increasing complexity of the population due to technologic advances. Risk factors or causes of hypertension can be found in most infants but treatment can be challenging. Most infant hypertension resolves over time although premature and low birth weight infants are at risk of future hypertension. This chapter will describe proper measurement of infant blood pressure, illustrate the expected changes in blood pressure during the first year of life, as well as explore evaluation, management, and follow-up of neonatal and infant hypertension.

Keywords

Neonatal blood pressure Neonatal hypertension Infant hypertension Blood pressure measurement Hypertension risk factors Hypertension management 

Abbreviations

ABPM

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

IV

Intravenous

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

NICU

Neonatal intensive care unit

PDA

Patent ductus arteriosus

RAAS

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

RVT

Renal vein thrombosis

SGA

Small for gestational age

UAC

Umbilical artery catheter

VLBW

Very low birth weight

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of British Columbia, BC Children’s HospitalVancouverCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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