Hypertension in Children with Type 2 Diabetes or the Metabolic Syndrome

  • Grace J. KimEmail author
  • Craig E. Taplin
  • Joseph T. Flynn
Reference work entry


The childhood obesity epidemic has been accompanied by an increase in complications of obesity such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obese youth with the metabolic syndrome are frequently hypertensive and may present with clinically significant evidence of hypertensive target-organ damage. There are important considerations in the approach to treating hypertension in young patients with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, which include the primacy of lifestyle approaches to effect substantial weight loss, increases in exercise, and reduced caloric and salt intake. The cardiovascular effects of oral hypoglycemic agents, and the potentially diabetogenic effects of certain antihypertensive medications must also be considered. A comprehensive approach, including nonpharmacologic measures, the use of hypoglycemic and antihypertensive medications, and perhaps even bariatric surgery in selected patients, is indicated in order to reduce future cardiovascular risk.


Pediatric hypertension Metabolic syndrome Type 2 diabetes 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace J. Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Craig E. Taplin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology and DiabetesSeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  3. 3.University of Washington School of MedicineDepartment of Pediatrics and Seattle Children’s Hospital, Division of NephrologySeattleUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA

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