Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Children

  • Samuel S. GiddingEmail author
Reference work entry


Atherosclerosis, the major cause of acquired cardiovascular disease, has its origins in childhood. The development of early atherosclerosis is directly related to the major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity. The presence of risk factors in childhood is associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis later in life, and risk factors assessed in children are highly likely to persist into adulthood. Thresholds for optimal levels of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood have been developed, and evidence-based strategies for the management of cardiovascular risk in childhood have been published.


Hypertension Cholesterol Tobacco Obesity Risk factors Children Heart disease Atherosclerosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nemours Cardiac CenterA. I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Karen M. Redwine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children's HospitalUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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