Living Reference Work Entry

Handbook of Human Motion

pp 1-19

Date: Latest Version

Eye Animation

  • Andrew T. DuchowskiAffiliated withClemenson University Email author 
  • , Sophie JörgAffiliated withSchool of Computing, Clemson University


The synthesis of eye movements involves modeling saccades (the rapid shifts of gaze), smooth pursuits (object tracking motions), binocular rotations implicated in vergence, and the coupling of eye and head rotations. More detailed movements include dilation and constriction of the pupil (pupil unrest) as well as small fluctuations (microsaccades, tremor, and drift, which we collectively call microsaccadic jitter) made during fixations, when gaze is held nearly steady. In this chapter, we focus on synthesizing physiologically plausible eye rotations, microsaccadic jitter, and pupil unrest. We review concepts relevant to the animation of eye motions and provide a procedural model of gaze that incorporates rotations adhering to Donders’ and Listing’s laws, the saccadic main sequence, along with gaze jitter and pupil unrest. We model microsaccadic jitter and pupil unrest by 1/f α or pink noise.


Eye movements Saccades Fixations Microsaccadic jitter