Living Reference Work Entry

Handbook of Human Motion

pp 1-13

Date: Latest Version

Crowd Evacuation Simulation

  • Tomoichi TakahashiAffiliated withDepartment of Information Engineering, Meijo University Email author 


Evacuation simulation systems simulate the evacuation behaviors of people during emergencies. In an emergency, people are upset and hence do not behave as they do during evacuation drills. Reports on past disasters reveal various unusual human behaviors. An agent-based system enables an evacuation simulation to consider these human behaviors, including their mental and social status. Simulation results that take the human factor into consideration seem to be a good tool for creating and improving preventions plans. However, it is important to verify and validate the simulation results for evacuations in unusual scenarios that have not yet occurred. This chapter shows that the combination of an agent’s physical and mental status and pedestrian dynamics is the key to replicating various human behaviors in crowd evacuation simulation. This realistic crowd evacuation simulation has the potential for practical application in the field.


Evacuation behavior Emergency scenario Agent-based simulation Cognitive map Psychological factor Belief-desire-intention Information transfer and sharing model Verification and validation