Neonatology pp 315-321 | Cite as

Guidelines and Protocols for Newborns

  • Rinaldo ZaniniEmail author
  • Roberto Bellù
Reference work entry


The principal aim of the guidelines is to offer recommendations to assist in clinical decisions. In neonatology systematic evaluation of scientific evidence is even more important than in other fields because of variability between the methodology of clinical studies and the difficulty to perform studies in the neonatal population. Guidelines are “statements that include recommendations, intended to optimize patient care, that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options.” In this framework they can help clinicians and healthcare providers in taking best decisions in specific conditions and setting. Methodology issues are of paramount importance in developing and evaluating guidelines. The GRADE approach is actually the standard framework to develop clinical guidelines. From an evaluation point of view, according to an approach to systematically develop guidelines, the AGREE II approach reached an elevated degree of validity and feasibility also for busy clinician and healthcare operator. Based on evidence-based guidelines, clinical pathways emerged as an important way to implement guidelines at the local level, looking at the specific processes of a given patient. Evidence-based guidelines can be effective in improving patient care; the focus is increasingly shifting toward how to encourage the use of guidelines throughout clinical practice. CP framework is one of the most promising approaches to reach this goal.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NICU, Ospedale ManzoniLeccoItaly

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