Neonatology pp 171-182 | Cite as

Late Preterm Infants at Risk for Short-Term and Long-Term Morbidity and Mortality

  • Avroy A. FanaroffEmail author
Reference work entry


Late preterm infants (LPIs) represent the largest subpopulation of preterm infants with significant short and long-term morbidity and even mortality compared to term infants. During birth hospitalization, the major causes of morbidity encountered in LPIs include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, respiratory failure, apnea, temperature instability, jaundice, hypoglycemia, and feeding difficulties, which result in a longer hospital stay and higher medical costs. In addition, LPIs have a higher prevalence of congenital malformations which may contribute to an increased mortality relative to term infants. There is a twofold risk of rehospitalization for LPIs compared with term infants. Hyperbilirubinemia, feeding difficulties, poor weight gain, dehydration, and apnea are the most common clinical conditions requiring hospital readmission during the first week of postnatal life. Respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders are the most common causes of late readmission during the first year of life. Evidence suggests that LPIs are at increased risk of adverse neuro-developmental outcomes and academic difficulties up to 7 years of age in comparison to term infants.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine Rainbow Babies and Children’s HospitalClevelandUSA

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