Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Herpes Simplex

  • Jacqueline E. van der WalEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_729-1


Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the two strains of the herpes family, Herpesviridae, which infect man and especially the oral cavity or genitals. Generally, HSV-1 gives rise to infections “above the waist” and HSV-2 “below the waist.” Both types are neurotropic.

Most primary HSV infections are acquired through direct contact with a lesion or with infected body fluids, especially saliva. Asymptomatic shedding occurs principally in the prodrome phase of the primary disease.

Clinically, the oral HSV-1 infection presents as gingivostomatitis. Most primary infections in children are mild to symptomatic, with only 10/20% very mild symptoms and arise after an incubation period of 2–20 days. The oral lesions may be accompanied by pyrexia, lethargy, loss of appetite, hypersalivation, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Due to difficulty in maintaining good oral hygiene, there can be oral malodour and a coated tongue.

HSV-1 has been suggested as a risk factor in...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Arduino, P. G., & Porter, S. R. (2006). Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection: Review of its management. Oral Diseases, 12, 254–270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arduino, P. G., & Porter, S. R. (2008). Herpes simplex virus type I infection: Overview on relevant clinico-pathological features. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, 37, 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Elad, S., Zadik, Y., Hewson, I., Hovan, A., Correa, M. E. P., Logan, R., Elting, L. S., et al. (2010). A systematic review of viral infections associated with oral involvement in cancer patients: A spotlight on Herpesviridae. Supportive Care in Cancer, 18, 993–1006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jain, M. (2016). Assessment of correlation of herpes simplex virus- with oral cancer and precancer – A comparative study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10, ZC14–ZC17.Google Scholar
  5. Kolokotronis, A., & Doumas, S. (2006). Herpes simplex virus infection, with particular reference to the progression and complication of herpetic gingivostomatitis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 12, 202–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyAntoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital/The Netherlands Cancer InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands