Living reference work entry
Gingival hyperplasia is a localized or generalized, often irregular, enlargement of the attached and marginal gingiva due to several causes (Fig. 1), such as drugs (anticonvulsants, cyclosporine, calcium channel blockers, erythromycin), infections and autoimmune hormonal changes (pregnancy, puberty), nutritional deficiencies (vitamin C, scurvy), and systemic disease (leukemia, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis). Localized forms probably result from an unusual hyperplastic tissue response to chronic inflammation associated with local factors such as plaque, calculus, or bacteria. A portion of a quadrant or all quadrants may be involved. The increase is usually due to an increase in extracellular matrix, predominantly collagen. Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. Both terms are used disorderly and can be the result...
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