Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Gingival Hyperplasia

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_719-1



Gingival hyperplasia is a localized or generalized, often irregular, enlargement of the attached and marginal gingiva due to several causes (Fig. 1), such as drugs (anticonvulsants, cyclosporine, calcium channel blockers, erythromycin), infections and autoimmune hormonal changes (pregnancy, puberty), nutritional deficiencies (vitamin C, scurvy), and systemic disease (leukemia, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis). Localized forms probably result from an unusual hyperplastic tissue response to chronic inflammation associated with local factors such as plaque, calculus, or bacteria. A portion of a quadrant or all quadrants may be involved. The increase is usually due to an increase in extracellular matrix, predominantly collagen. Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. Both terms are used disorderly and can be the result...
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References and Further Reading

  1. Butler, R. T., & Kalkwarf, K. L. (1987). Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia: Phenytoin, cyclosporine and nifedipine. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 114, 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Camargo, P. M., Melnick, P. R., Pirih, F. Q. M., Lagos, R., & Takei, H. H. (2000). Treatment of drug-induced gingival enlargement: Aesthetic and functional considerations. Periodontology 2000, 27, 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dongari, A., Mc Donnell, H. T., & Langlais, R. P. (1993). Drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, 76, 543–548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hassell, T. M., & Hefti, A. F. (1991). Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: Old problem, new problem. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 2, 103–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Li, R., Byers, K., & Walvekar, R. R. (2008). Gingival hypertrophy: A solitary manifestation of scurvy. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 29, 426–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyAntoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital/The Netherlands Cancer InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands