Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Benign and Atypical Apocrine Lesions

  • Reena KhiroyaEmail author
  • Clive Wells
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_4739-1

Synonyms

Definition

Apocrine metaplasia: This is a change of native breast ductal epithelial cells into cells showing eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, a large open nucleus with a single nucleolus, and decapitation secretion. Apocrine metaplasia can be subtyped into simple, papillary, and complex depending on architectural complexity. Apocrine metaplasia can coexist with columnar cell change, sometimes even involving the same duct spaces.

Apocrine adenosis: This is apocrine change in sclerosing adenosis. Some authors use a different definition, as a haphazard proliferation of bland glands with apocrine differentiation and use this term as synonymous with adenomyoepithelial adenosis.

Atypical apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis (atypical apocrine adenosis): Generally seen in postmenopausal women, these cases are defined as having a 3× variation in nuclear size. They have no...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Calhoun, B. C., & Booth, C. N. (2014). Atypical apocrine adenosis diagnosed on breast core biopsy: Implications for management. Human Pathology, 45, 2130–2135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Celis, J. E., Moreira, J. M. A., Gromova, I., Cabezón, T., Gromov, P., Shen, T., Timmermans, V., & Rank, F. (2007). Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Molecular Oncology, 1, 97–119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins, L. C., Cole, K. S., Marotti, J. D., Hu, R., Schnitt, S. J., & Tamimi, R. M. (2011). Androgen receptor expression in breast cancer in relation to molecular phenotype: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Modern Pathology, 14, 924–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cserni, G. (2008). Lack of myoepithelium in apocrine glands of the breast does not necessarily imply malignancy. Histopathology, 52, 253–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fuehrer, N., Hartmann, L., Degnim, A., Allers, T., Vierkant, R., Frost, M., & Visscher, D. (2012). Atypical apocrine adenosis of the breast: Long-term follow-up in 37 patients. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 136, 179–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gromov, P., Espinoza, J. A., & Gromova, I. (2015). Molecular and diagnostic features of apocrine breast lesions. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 15, 1011–1022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Page, D. L., Dupont, W. D., & Jensen, R. A. (1996). Papillary apocrine change of the breast: Associations with atypical hyperplasia and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 5, 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Papotti, M., Gugliotta, P., Ghiringhello, B., & Bussolati, G. (1984). Association of breast carcinoma and multiple intraductal papillomas: An histological and immunohistochemical investigation. Histopathology, 8, 963–975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Rosen, P. P. (1985). Papillary duct hyperplasia of the breast in children and young adults. Cancer, 56, 1611–1617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Rosen, P. P., Holmes, G., Lesser, M. L., Kinne, D. W., & Beattie, E. J. (1985). Juvenile papillomatosis and breast carcinoma. Cancer, 55, 1345–1352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Seidman, J. D., Ashton, M., & Lefkowitz, M. (1996). Atypical apocrine adenosis of the breast: A clinicopathologic study of 37 patients with 8.7-year follow-up. Cancer, 77, 2529–2537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Selim, A. G. A., Ryan, A., El-Ayat, G., & Wells, C. A. (2002). Loss of heterozygosity and allelic imbalance in apocrine metaplasia of the breast: Microdissection microsatellite analysis. The Journal of Pathology, 196, 287–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University College London HospitalLondonUK