Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis due to functional abnormalities of maturing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Abnormal HSC actively proliferates, but is unable to undergo the normal differentiation necessary to produce mature circulating elements of the three hematopoietic lineages (i.e., erythroid, granulocytic, and megakaryocytic) and dies in the bone marrow through programmed cell death or apoptosis. This ineffective hematopoiesis manifests clinically with peripheral blood (PB) cytopenia(s) and morphologically with single lineage or multilineage dysplasia.
With disease progression, HSC in MDS acquires multistep alterations, the accumulation of which may eventually cause transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Incidence and Age
The annual incidence of MDS in the general...
References and Further Reading
- Hasserjian, R. P., Orazi, A., Brunning, R. D., et al. (2017). Myelodysplastic syndromes Chapter 6. In S. H. Swerdlow et al. (Eds.), WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (Revised 4th ed., pp. 97–120). Lyon: IARC.Google Scholar