Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Aplastic Anemia

  • Thomas Menter
  • Alexandar TzankovEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_3878-1


Definition and Etiology

Aplastic anemia (AA) is defined as at least bicytopenia (two of the following: granulocytes <0.5 × 10 9/l; platelets <20 × 10 9/l; corrected reticulocyte count <20 × 10 9/l) in the background of either markedly (<25% of age-adjusted cellularity) or moderately hypoplastic (25–50% of age-adjusted cellularity with <30% of cells being hematopoietic cells) bone marrow as assessed on a biopsy (Fig. 1ac). Thus, for the diagnosis of AA, both features of bi-/pan-cytopenia in the peripheral blood and hypoplasia of the bone marrow have to be fulfilled. Major dysplasia of the hematopoietic cells, tumor infiltrates, or increased fibrosis must be absent. AA can be graded according to the criteria established by Camitta et al., and very severe AA is defined by a neutrophil count <0.2 × 10 9/L.
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References and Further Reading

  1. Ogawa, S. (2016). Clonal hematopoiesis in acquired aplastic anemia. Blood, 128, 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Scheinberg, P., & Young, N. S. (2012). How I treat acquired aplastic anemia. Blood, 120, 1185–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Stern, M., Buser, A. S., Lohri, A., Tichelli, A., & Nissen-Druey, C. (2007). Autoimmunity and malignancy in hematology – More than an association. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 63, 100–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tzankov, A., & Medinger, M. (2014). Aplastic anemia: Possible associations with lymphoproliferative neoplasms. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, 36, 382–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Yoshizato, T., Dumitriu, B., Hosokawa, K., Makishima, H., Yoshida, K., Townsley, D., Sato-Otsubo, A., Sato, Y., Liu, D., Suzuki, H., Wu, C. O., Shiraishi, Y., Clemente, M. J., Kataoka, K., Shiozawa, Y., Okuno, Y., Chiba, K., Tanaka, H., Nagata, Y., Katagiri, T., Kon, A., Sanada, M., Scheinberg, P., Miyano, S., Maciejewski, J. P., Nakao, S., Young, N. S., & Ogawa, S. (2015). Somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis in aplastic anemia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 373, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Medical Genetics and PathologyUniversity Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland