The Application of In Vivo MRI and MRS in Phenomic Studies of Murine Models of Disease

  • Po-Wah SoEmail author
  • Azhaar Ashraf
  • Alice Marie Sybille Durieux
  • William Richard Crum
  • Jimmy David Bell
Reference work entry


As we enter the post-genomic era, understanding the role and function of single or group of genes in the context of a whole functioning organism, has become paramount in terms of human health. Much of this work is being carried out in rodent models of diseases, requiring the use of in vivo non-invasive imaging techniques to study the animals. Here we review the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for the phenotypic characterization of the ever increasing numbers of murine models of health and disease. We describe the current MRI and MRS strategies being applied to the characterization of these models and point out potential pitfalls and limitations of the available techniques. Finally, we review the latest advances in MRI and MRS and their potential application to pre-clinical studies.


Murine models Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Magnetic resonance histology Magnetic resonance microscopy Multinuclear Whole body phenotyping Adipose tissue Lungs Brain Liver Muscle Metabolic profiling 



The authors would like acknowledge the BBSRC, MRC, and EPSRC for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Po-Wah So
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azhaar Ashraf
    • 1
  • Alice Marie Sybille Durieux
    • 2
  • William Richard Crum
    • 3
  • Jimmy David Bell
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Forensic and neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Institute of Translational Medicine and TherapeuticsImperial College London, Hammersmith HospitalLondonUK
  4. 4.Research Centre for Optimal Health, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of WestminsterLondonUK

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