NMR Imaging of Bakery Products
This chapter starts with the interest of imaging the heterogeneous structure of bakery products at multi-scales as well as the way some drawbacks of MRI applied to these particular products (especially low signal-to-noise ratio) have been circumvented with success in earlier MRI studies. Lying on numerous examples from the literature, the chapter then presents different types of original information which can be extracted from MRI images of bakery products: (i) the mapping of proportions (gas, ice, liquid water, or liquid fat) or of temperature, (ii) extraction from images of probability distribution function in size of gas cells, and (iii) displacement of matter. Since these changes are often combined, the analysis highlights the ways or the configurations favorable for unravelling the different contributions to the variation in the MRI signal and more generally the precautions to be taken for adequate interpretation of the MRI signal in the different configurations.
KeywordsDough Bread Crumb Crust Danish pastry Temperature Water content Fat proportion Gas proportion Inflation Collapse Baking Proving Refrigeration Freezing Image processing Partial volume Denoising Granulometry Optical flow
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