Advertisement

Nondestructive Testing of Objects from Cultural Heritage with NMR

  • Maria Baias
  • Bernhard Blümich
Reference work entry

Abstract

Our world heritage is constantly facing the risk of being lost, either to severe weather conditions, chemical or biological attack, mishandling by conservators, inappropriate storage conditions, or even destruction by war. Science can provide the necessary tools for analyzing the objects of cultural heritage, assessing their state of conservation, and proposing suitable methods and strategies for preserving them for future generations. Nondestructive testing by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in this area of research is relatively new. It was made possible by the development of portable single-sided NMR sensors capable of recording NMR signals from samples that are exterior to the magnet. Nondestructibility and mobility are the two main features identifying mobile NMR as an essential tool for cultural heritage research.

Keywords

Mobile NMR Unilateral NMR NMR-MOUSE Conservation science Cultural heritage Art conservation 

References

  1. 1.
    Blümich B, Perlo J, Casanova F. Mobile single-sided NMR. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2008;52(4):197–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blümich B. Mobile and compact NMR. In: Webb GA, editor. Modern magnetic resonance. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 1–32.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Casieri C, Bubici S, De Luca F. Self-diffusion coefficient by single-sided NMR. J Magn Reson. 2003;162(2):348–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eidmann G, Savelsberg R, Blümler P, Blümich B. The NMR MOUSE, a mobile universal surface explorer. J Magn Reson Ser A. 1996;122(1):104–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Perlo J, Casanova F, Blümich B. Profiles with microscopic resolution by single-sided NMR. J Magn Reson. 2005;176(1):64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blümich B, Casanova F, Perlo J, Presciutti F, Anselmi C, Doherty B. Noninvasive testing of art and cultural heritage by mobile NMR. Acc Chem Res. 2010;43(6):761–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Capitani D, Di Tullio V, Proietti N. Nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize and monitor cultural heritage. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2012;64:29–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rühli FJ, Böni T, Perlo J, Casanova F, Baias M, Egarter E, et al. Non-invasive spatial tissue discrimination in ancient mummies and bones in situ by portable nuclear magnetic resonance. J Cult Herit. 2007;8(3):257–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Proietti N, Capitani D, Rossi E, Cozzolino S, Segre AL. Unilateral NMR study of a XVI century wall painted. J Magn Reson. 2007;186(2):311–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blümich B, Haber A, Casanova F, Del Federico E, Boardman V, Wahl G, et al. Noninvasive depth profiling of walls by portable nuclear magnetic resonance. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397(7):3117–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leonardi R. Nuclear physics and painting: sub-topic of the wide and fascinating field of science and art. Nucl Phys A. 2005;752:659–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Presciutti F, Perlo J, Casanova F, Glöggler S, Miliani C, Blümich B, et al. Noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of painting layers. Appl Phys Lett. 2008;93(3):033505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marchettini N, Atrei A, Benetti F, Proietti N, Di Tullio V, Mascalchi M, et al. Non-destructive characterisation of fourteenth century painting by means of molecular spectroscopy and unilateral NMR. Surf Eng. 2013;29(2):153–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fife GR, Stabik B, Kelley AE, King JN, Blümich B, Hoppenbrouwers R, et al. Characterization of aging and solvent treatments of painted surfaces using single-sided NMR. Magn Reson Chem. 2015;53(1):58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Balabanski DL, BB, Gelli N, Iancu V, Iovea M, Kriznar A, Massi M, Mazzinghi A, Ortega-Feliu I, Respaldiza MA, Ruberto C, Scrivano S, Suliman G, Szökefalvi-Nagy Z, Ur CA, Zia W. Complementary methods: γ-beam techniques, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In: Macková AM, Douglas, Azaiez F, Nyberg J, Piasetzky E, editors. Nuc Phys Div Europ Phys Soc. Mulhouse, France. 2016. 84 p.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hendrickx R, Ferreira ESB, Boon JJ, Desmarais G, Derome D, Angelova L, et al. Distribution of moisture in reconstructed oil paintings on canvas during absorption and drying: a neutron radiography and NMR study. Stud Conserv. 2016;62:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Angelova LV, Ormsby B, Richardson E. Diffusion of water from a range of conservation treatment gels into paint films studied by unilateral NMR. Microchem J. 2016;124:311–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Proietti N, Capitani D, Lamanna R, Presciutti F, Rossi E, Segre AL. Fresco paintings studied by unilateral NMR. J Magn Reson. 2005;177(1):111–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blümich B. NMR to go – miniaturized NMR machines. GIT Lab J. 2015;7–8:22–5.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Capitani D, Proietti N, Gobbino M, Soroldoni L, Casellato U, Valentini M, et al. An integrated study for mapping the moisture distribution in an ancient damaged wall painting. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;395(7):2245–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Di Tullio V, Proietti N, Gobbino M, Capitani D, Olmi R, Priori S, et al. Non-destructive mapping of dampness and salts in degraded wall paintings in hypogeous buildings: the case of St. Clement at mass fresco in St. Clement Basilica, Rome. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;396(5):1885–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blümich B, Haber-Pohlmeier S, Zia W. Compact NMR. Berlin: De Gruyter; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haber A, Blümich B, Souvorova D, Del Federico E. Ancient Roman wall paintings mapped nondestructively by portable NMR. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401(4):1441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fukunaga K, Meldrum T, Zia W, Ohno M, Fuchida T, Blümich B. Nondestructive investigation of the internal structure of fresco paintings. 2013 digital heritage international congress (DigitalHeritage), 28 Oct 2013–1 Nov 2013; 2013.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma S, Casanova F, Wache W, Segre A, Blümich B. Analysis of historical porous building materials by the NMR-MOUSE®☆☆®NMR-MOUSE is a registered trademark of RWTH Aachen. Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;21(3):249–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oligschläger DK, Klaus, Poschadel T, Watzlaw J, Blümich B. Miniature mobile NMR sensors for material testing and moisture monitoring. Open-Access J Basic Princ Diffus Theory Exp Appl. 2014;22(8):1–25.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oligschläger D, Waldow S, Haber A, Zia W, Blümich B. Moisture dynamics in wall paintings monitored by single-sided NMR. Magn Reson Chem. 2015;53(1):48–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blümich B, Anferova S, Sharma S, Segre AL, Federici C. Degradation of historical paper: nondestructive analysis by the NMR-MOUSE. J Magn Reson. 2003;161(2):204–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Proietti N, Capitani D, Pedemonte E, Blümich B, Segre AL. Monitoring degradation in paper: non-invasive analysis by unilateral NMR. Part II J Magn Reson. 2004;170(1):113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Viola I, Bubici S, Casieri C, De Luca F. The codex major of the collectio altaempsiana: a non-invasive NMR study of paper. J Cult Herit. 2004;5(3):257–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Casieri C, Bubici S, Viola I, De Luca F. A low-resolution non-invasive NMR characterization of ancient paper. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. 2004;26(2):65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Masic A, Chierotti MR, Gobetto R, Martra G, Rabin I, Coluccia S. Solid-state and unilateral NMR study of deterioration of a Dead Sea Scroll fragment. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402(4):1551–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Castro K, Proietti N, Princi E, Pessanha S, Carvalho ML, Vicini S, et al. Analysis of a coloured Dutch map from the eighteenth century: the need for a multi-analytical spectroscopic approach using portable instrumentation. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;623(2):187–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Del Federico E, Centeno SA, Kehlet C, Ulrich K, Yamazaki-Kleps A, Jerschow A. In situ unilateral 1H-NMR studies of the interaction between lead white pigments and collagen-based binders. Appl Magn Reson. 2012;42(3):363–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baias M. Science and history explored by nuclear magnetic resonance. Germany: Shaker Verlag GmbH; 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Science DivisionNew York University Abu DhabiAbu DhabiUAE
  2. 2.Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare ChemieRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations