Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Social Anxiety/Social Phobia

  • Jessica S. JamesEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_947-1



Social anxiety is a common experience that occurs on a continuum (Rapee and Heimberg 1997; Ruscio 2010). Thus, while social anxiety and reticence may be appropriate and adaptive in some situation, social anxiety disorder (SAD) occurs when a person experiences multiple social fears that cause broad impairments (Heimberg et al. 2014). However, the distinction between normative social anxiety and SAD continues to be debated (Ruscio 2010).

In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), SAD (previously known as social phobia) is characterized by intense fear or anxiety about social situations in which the person may be observed and in which they fear their actions or displays of anxiety symptoms will be negatively evaluated (American Psychological Association [APA] 2013). These negative evaluations include potential humiliation and embarrassment as well as fears of rejection and offending others (APA 2013...


Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Personality Disorder Negative Evaluation Social Phobia 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Bradley A. Green
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA