Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Beck Depression Inventory

  • Sarah A. ReilandEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_6-1


The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck et al. 1996) and its various adaptations assess the severity of self-reported depression symptoms. The BDI-II is a 21-item self-report measure scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale that can be administered by paper or in electronic format.


Beck et al. (1961) created the original BDI to meet the need for a brief self-report measure that can quickly summarize recent symptoms of depression. Major Depressive Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association (APA 2013) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) as one of several disorders that primarily involves sad or irritable mood along with somatic and cognitive symptoms that significantly impair a person’s functioning. Symptoms of major depressive disorder include depressed mood, diminished interest in life activities, weight or appetite changes, sleep changes, psychomotor changes, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, problems...


Traumatic Brain Injury Major Depressive Disorder Depression Symptom Severe Depressive Symptom Irritable Mood 
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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWinthrop UniversityRock HillUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA