Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Behavioral and Performance Measures of Personality

  • Tuulia M. OrtnerEmail author
  • René T. Proyer
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1281-1



Behavioral and performance measures of personality, also referred to as objective personality tests (OPTs) or objective tests, are used to gather information about people’s characteristics by assessing their overt behavior in highly standardized miniature situations (Cattell and Warburton 1967). Scores from such measures are not based on introspection, self-estimation, or self-ratings with reference to these characteristics. Such tests also lack face validity with reference to the assessed characteristic or how the scores are obtained. Compared with self-report measures, OPTs are designed to be less susceptible to the manipulation and distortion of information, including faking and self-deception (see Ortner and Proyer 2015).


It is remarkable that most researchers would estimate objectivetests of people’s cognitive abilities or...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universität SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Universität Halle-WittenbergHalleGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Matthias Ziegler
    • 1
  1. 1.Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany